АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018
Для выполнения заданий 12-18 экзаменуемым предлагается прочитать художественный или публицистический текст и выбрать правильный ответ из четырёх предложенных вариантов. Задания 12-18 могут представлять собой вопросы, на которые надо найти ответы, или незавершённые утверждения, к которым надо подобрать правильное окончание.
Это задания высокого уровня, требующие от учащихся полного и точного понимания текста, а следовательно, — обширного словарного запаса и прочных лексико-грамматических навыков. В процессе чтения учащиеся могут отмечать правильные ответы на листе с заданиями.
По окончании выполнения всех заданий следует перенести свои ответы в бланк ответов № 1. За каждый правильный ответ учащийся получает 1 балл. Максимально возможное количество первичных баллов за это задание — 7.
РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ К ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ ЗАДАНИЙ 12-18
• Прочитайте внимательно весь текст, а затем начните отвечать на вопросы.
• Не волнуйтесь, если вы не знаете значения каких-либо слов. Возможно, они не понадобятся вам при выборе правильного ответа. Если всё же эти слова существенны для ответа на вопрос, попробуйте догадаться об их значении по контексту или словообразовательным элементам.
• Прочитайте вопрос и попытайтесь найти в тексте ответ на него до того, как вы посмотрите на варианты ответов. Затем прочитайте варианты ответа и выберите тот, который наилучшим образом удовлетворяет содержанию текста.
• При выборе ответа помните, что слова в правильном варианте не всегда совпадают со словами текста. Очень часто правильный ответ выражает идею текста другими словами.
• Рекомендуется отмечать ответы в тексте, чтобы в случае необходимости можно было быстро найти нужное место и ещё раз проверить свой ответ.
• Вопросы обычно следуют в том порядке, в котором они встречаются в тексте.
• Не следует отвечать на вопрос, основываясь на собственном опыте или уже имеющихся знаниях. Вы должны найти запрашиваемую информацию в тексте и сделать вывод только на основании прочитанного.
• Если вы затрудняетесь с выбором правильного ответа, попробуйте исключить неверные ответы. Обращайте внимание на детали, так как неверные ответы могут содержать иную грамматическую форму или слегка изменённую информацию из текста.
• Рекомендуемое время на выполнение этого задания — 15 мин.
ОБРАЗЦЫ ЗАДАНИЙ 12-18 В ФОРМАТЕ ЕГЭ
9. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.
It was the second of September, 1859. The clipper ship Southern Cross was off Chile when it sailed into a living hell. Hailstones from above and waves from all around whipped the deck. When the ocean spray fell away to leeward, the men noticed they were sailing in an ocean of blood. The colour was reflected from the sky, which was wreathed in a red glow.
The sailors recognised the lights as the southern aurora that usually clung to the Antarctic Circle. To see them from this far north was highly unusual. As the gale subsided, they witnessed an even more astonishing display. Fiery lights loomed against the horizon as if some terrible fire had engulfed the Earth. Upon their arrival in San Francisco, they discovered that two thirds of the Earth’s skies had been similarly smothered. Also, there was a sinister side to the aurora.
The beguiling lights had disabled the telegraph system, wiping out communications across the world. It was as if today’s Internet had suddenly shut down. In some offices the equipment burst into flames. In Norway, the operators had to disconnect the apparatus, risking electrocution. On top of this, compasses spun uselessly under the grip of the aurora, disrupting global navigation.
In the scramble to understand just what had engulfed Earth, the Victorians had only one clue. On the previous morning amateur astronomer Richard Carrington was working in his private observatory and found himself witness to an unprecedented celestial event.
He was studying sunspots, the unexplained dark blemishes that occasionally speckle the Sun. The sunspot that Carrington gazed upon that day was really huge. It was almost ten times the diameter of the Earth. Without warning, two beads of white light appeared over it.
No one had ever described the Sun behaving like this before and Carrington instantly began timing the lights as they drifted across the sunspot, faded and vanished. That night, the apocalyptic aurora burst over the Earth. Could it be that Carrington’s titanic explosion had somehow hurled the electrical and magnetic energy at the Earth?
Carrington himself never pursued the research. Yet his discovery of the solar flare began half a century of intrigue, rivalry and speculation as other astronomers raced to understand the mysterious way in which the Sun could reach out the Earth. With the benefit of hindsight, we can see that the Carrington flare was a tipping point for astronomy. Suddenly aware that the Earth and its technology could be affected by celestial events, astronomers turned their attention away from charting the positions of stars to aid navigation, and began studying the nature of celestial objects.
Today, the study continues. Astronomers routinely watch solar flares and know that these explosions usually eject huge clouds of electrically-charged particles into space. When these strike the Earth, they produce the aurora in the atmosphere and cause technology to malfunction. Astronomers call it space weather, and the ferocity of it still occasionally comes as a surprise. In October 2003, a Japanese weather satellite died during a solar storm. In 1989, millions of North Americans were blacked out when a solar storm damaged the power station in Canada.
The scale of the solar storm of 1859 has never been equalled since. With our current reliance on technology higher than at any time in history, another ‘Carrington- event’ could cost us billions.
(Adapted from ‘The Biggest Solar Storm in History’ by Stuart Clark)
12. When the clipper ship Southern Cross was off Chile,
1) the weather improved.
2) huge stones started falling from above.
3) the ocean water changed its colour.
4) there was a lot of blood around.
13. It is rare for the southern aurora to
1) be seen against the horizon.
2) have red colour.
3) appear so far north.
4) occur near the Antarctic Circle.
14. What was NOT the effect of the aurora?
1) The telegraph system was disabled.
2) The Internet suddenly shut down.
3) The equipment in some offices burst into flames.
4) Compasses spun uselessly, disrupting global navigation.
15. The probable reason for the aurora was
1) a huge sunspot.
2) the light from the sun.
3) the electrical and magnetic energy of the Earth.
4) powerful solar flares.
16. Carrington’s discovery was a tipping point for astronomy because
1) it began half a century of intrigue, rivalry and speculation.
2) it proved celestial events were unable to affect our planet.
3) astronomers began studying the nature of the celestial objects.
4) astronomers turned their attention to charting the positions of stars.
17. Today astronomers are still amazed by the
1) extreme force of solar storms.
2) amount of electrically-charged particles ejected by solar flares.
3) fact that the aurora causes technology to malfunction.
4) fact that a Japanese weather satellite died during a solar storm.
18. The solar storm of 1859 was
1) the first solar storm on our planet.
2) twice as big as the fiercest recent storms.
3) less fierce than most recent solar storms.
4) the fiercest in recent history.
10. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.
When David steps out of the front door he is blinded for a moment by the fizzing sunlight and reaches instinctively for his dad’s hand. Father and son are on their way to the barbershop, something they have always done together.
The routine is always the same. ‘It’s about time we got that mop of yours cut,’ David’s dad says. ‘Perhaps, I should do it. Where are those garden shears, Jane?’ Sometimes his dad chases him round the living room, pretending to cut off his ears. When he was young David used to get too excited and start crying, scared that maybe he really would lose his ears, but he has long since grown out of that.
Mr. Samuels’ barbershop is in a long room above the shop, reached by a steep flight of stairs. There is a groove worn in each step by the men who climb and descend in a regular stream. David follows his father, annoyed that he cannot make each step creak like his old man can.
David loves the barbershop — it’s like nowhere else he goes. Black and white photographs of men with various out-offashion hairstyles hang above a picture rail at the end of the room, where two barber’s chairs are bolted to the floor. They are heavy, old-fashioned chairs with foot pumps that hiss and chatter as Mr. Samuels, the rolls of his plump neck squashing slightly, adjusts the height of the seat. In front of the chairs are deep sinks with a showerhead and long metal hose attached to the taps. Behind the sinks are mirrors and on either side of these, shelves overflowing with a mixture of plastic combs, shaving mugs, scissors, cut throat razors and hair.
The room is usually packed with customers, silent for most of the time. When it is David’s turn for a cut, Mr. Samuels places a wooden board covered with a piece of red leather across the arms of the chair, so that the barber doesn’t have to stoop to cut the boy’s hair. David scrambles up onto the bench and looked at himself in the mirror.
‘The rate you’re shooting up, you won’t need this soon,’ the barber says. ‘Wow,’ says David, squirming round to look at his dad, forgetting that he can see him through the mirror. ‘Dad, Mr. Samuels said I could be sitting in the chair soon, not just on the board!’ ‘I hear,’ his father replies without looking up from the paper. ‘I expect Mr. Samuels will start charging me more for your hair then.’ ‘At least double the price,’ said Mr. Samuels, winking at David. Finally David’s dad looks up from his newspaper and glances into the mirror, seeing his son looking back at him. He smiles.
Occasionally David steals glances at the barber as he works. He smells a mixture of stale sweat and aftershave as the barber’s moves around him, combing and snipping, combing and snipping. David feels like he is in another world, noiseless except for the snap of the barber’s scissors. In the reflection from the window he could see a few small clouds moving slowly to the sound of the scissors’ click.
When Mr. Samuels has finished, David hops down from the seat, rubbing the itchy hair from his face. Looking down he sees his own thick, blonde hair scattered among the browns, greys and blacks of the men who have sat in the chair before him. For a moment he wants to reach down and gather up the broken blonde locks, to separate them from the others, but he does not have time.
The sun is still strong when they reach the pavement outside the shop. ‘Let’s get some fish and chips to take home, save your mum from cooking tea,’ says David’s dad. The youngster is excited and grabs his dad’s hand.
(Adapted from ‘David’s Haircut’ by Ken Elkes)
12. Sometimes David’s dad chases him round the living room because he
1) intends to take him to the barbershop.
2) feels like frightening David.
3) wants to cut off David’s ears.
4) plans to cut David’s hair with the shears.
13. In paragraph 3 ‘a groove’ means
1) a kind of clothes worn by the men who come to the barbershop.
2) a special perfume.
3) a thin cut into a wooden surface.
4) a creak that each step makes.
14. Mr. Samuels
1) has got a modern barbershop.
2) is a rich barber.
3) has got very few customers.
4) is slightly fat.
15. Mr. Samuels places a wooden board across the arms of the chair because he
1) wants David to sit comfortably while cutting.
2) would like David to see himself in the mirror.
3) doesn’t want to bend while cutting the boy’s hair.
4) doesn’t want David to turn in order to see his father.
16. Mr. Samuels says he will charge a double price for David’s hair because
1) he intends to raise the price of the haircut.
2) David has already grown up.
3) he is kidding.
4) he needs to buy a new chair.
17. David feels like he is in another world because he
1) has never been to the barbershop.
2) can hear almost no sounds.
3) smells a mixture of stale sweat and aftershave.
4) can see some clouds in the sky.
18. David’s hair is
11. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианту ответа.
The risk of catastrophic climate change is getting worse, according to a new study from scientists involved with the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Threats, ranging from the destruction of coral reefs to more extreme weather events like hurricanes, droughts and floods, are becoming more likely at the temperature change that is already underway.
‘Most people thought that the risks were going to be only for certain species and poor people. But all of a sudden the European heat wave of 2003 came along and killed lots of people. Hurricane Katrina caused the increased intensity of droughts and floods. Plus, there’s a dramatic melting of Greenland that nobody can explain,’ says climatologist Stephen Schneider of Stanford University. ‘There is evidence everywhere that what was believed to be likely has happened. Unfortunately, nature has been cooperating with the climate change theory, and this fact certainly has to increase our concern.’
Schneider and his colleagues updated a graph, dubbed the ‘burning embers’, that was designed to map the risks of damage from global warming. The initial version of the graph drawn in 2001 had the risks of climate change beginning to appear after 3.6 °F (2 °C) of warming, but the years since have shown that climate risks kick in with less warming.
According to the new graph, risks to ‘unique and threatened systems’ such as coral reefs as well as risks of extreme weather events become likely when temperatures rise by as little as 1.8 °F from 1990 levels, which is likely to occur by mid-century given the current concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Risks of negative consequences such as increased droughts and the complete melting of ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica definitively outweigh any potential positives such as longer growing seasons in countries like Canada and Russia.
‘We’re definitely going to overshoot some of these temperatures where we see these very large vulnerabilities manifest,’ says economist Gary Yohe of Wesleyan University in Middletown. ‘That means we’ll have to learn how to adapt.’ Adaptation notwithstanding, Yohe and Schneider say that scientists must also figure out a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to reverse the heating trend and to prevent further damage.
Several bills pending in Congress would set a so-called cap-and-trade policy under which an overall limit on pollution would be set. Companies with low output could sell their allowances to those that fail to cut emissions as long as the total stays within the total pollution cap. ‘Any federal policy would put a price on carbon dioxide pollution, which is currently free to vent into the atmosphere,’ Yohe notes. He, however, favours a so-called carbon tax that would set a fixed price for climate-changing pollution.
But even with such policies in place climate change is a foregone conclusion. Global average temperatures have already risen by at least 0.6 °C and further warming of at least 0.4 °C is virtually certain, according to the IPCC. A host of studies, including a recent one from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, have shown that global warming is already worse than predicted even a few years ago. The question is: ‘Will it be catastrophic or not?’ ‘Nobody knows,’ Schneider says. ‘But it’s time to move.’
(Adapted from ‘Risks of Global Warming Rising‘ by David Biello)
12. The current temperature change
1) is less than it was predicted.
2) is too little to cause any concern.
3) makes natural disasters more probable.
4) has caused the catastrophic climate change.
13. According to Stephen Schneider, people should be more worried because
1) the heat wave is going to kill more people.
2) the intensity of floods and drought will increase in the near future.
3) nobody can explain the dramatic melting of Greenland.
4) nature has proved the climate change theory.
14. In paragraph 3 ‘dubbed’ means
15. According to the updated graph, risks of negative consequences begin to appear
1) when the temperature change reaches 1° C.
2) when temperatures rise by as little as 1.8° C from 1990 levels.
3) after 3.6° F of warming.
4) after 2° C of warming.
16. Global warming has
1) only negative consequences.
2) only positive consequences.
3) more negative than positive consequences.
4) more positive than negative consequences.
17. Cap-and-trade policy implies that
1) companies will have to cut their emissions.
2) companies could sell their emissions.
3) the overall amount of emissions must stay within a certain limit.
4) companies will have to pay a fixed carbon tax.
18. According to the IPCC, global warming
1) is no worse than predicted a few years ago.
2) will have catastrophic effect.
3) is still uncertain.
4) is inevitable.
12. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12-18. В каждом задании запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую выбранному вами варианта ответа.
Any architect, builder or scientist can speculate about what the house of the future might be like. But Grace can tell you because Grace is a talking house. Her high-tech gadgets and innovative uses of everyday objects will certainly change the way we think about our homes. Grace isn’t the only one exploring how technology can make our homes more efficient and comfortable. Here is a survey of home innovators’ best ideas.
Grace is not a real house. More formally known as the Microsoft Home, she exists inside an office building on the company’s campus in Redmond. But once inside, it’s easy to imagine you’re in a trendy, futuristic home. When you enter the house, Grace’s voice, coming from hidden speakers, relays your messages. In the kitchen, you set a bag of flour on the stone counter. Grace sees what you’re doing, and projects a list of flour-based recipes on the counter. Once you choose one, Grace recites a list of necessary ingredients. She even knows what’s in your pantry or refrigerator, thanks to a special technology.
The notion of seamless computing, in which technology is everywhere and yet nowhere (except when we want it), underlies most future-home thinking. Technology manager Jay Libby envisions windows made of smart glass that can be transformed into a TV. ‘Nobody wants a television set,’ says Libby. ‘People want the service it provides.’ If he gets his way, the TV will soon disappear, and the term picture window will be redefined.
Home entertainment is just one consideration for the future. The day when your house will be like a family member is not that far off. In Atlanta, scientists are designing systems that will allow older people to continue living independently. For example, Grandma’s home can be intelligently wired to recognize her patterns of sleep and movement so that her family members can be notified of any changes via computer. Does spying on Grandma sound creepy? Today scientists are working on how to convey information without sacrificing privacy and autonomy. They also don’t want to create inappropriate anxiety. Maybe your granny just took a quiet day to read, and the system would have to recognize that.
If we’re going to live in our homes longer, they’ll need to be more flexible. Future homes will be manufactured in factories and then assembled on-site. Already, some homes are made out of prefab walls called structural insulated panels. These boards wrapped around a foam core eliminate the need for conventional framing. Besides offering speed, strength and accuracy, panellised construction is extremely airtight because the foam core completely seals the home. Insulspan president Frank Baker calls it ‘a total energy envelope.’ He ought to know because his own 5,000-square-foot panellised home costs less than $500 a year to heat.
At some point, homes will have to use alternative energy sources such as solar panels, which look like regular roof shingles. Today, these systems are rare and expensive, but they’ll start to look more attractive as electricity costs climb.
It’s easy to get carried away with visions of homes that heat themselves, keep us company and remind us to call the folks. ‘But technology never drives the aesthetic,’ says architect Sarah Susanka. ‘That’s why those weird-looking ‘houses of the future’ never come into being. People will always want their house to look and feel like a home.’
(Adapted from ‘Home, Smart Home’ by Max Alexander)
12. Grace is a
1) futuristic fashion house.
2) sample of innovations.
3) Microsoft office.
4) real house.
13. The aim of Grace is to
1) free people from cooking.
2) introduce new entertainment facilities.
3) change people’s attitude to homes.
4) have someone to talk to.
14. In paragraph 4 ‘seamless computing’ means that
1) you cannot feel the presence of computers.
2) computers are connected seamlessly.
3) there are no computers in the house.
4) computing is meaningless.
15. Grandma’s home will allow family members to
1) live together with their grandparents.
2) feel free from spying.
3) convey information without sacrificing privacy.
4) get information about their older relatives.
16. Structural insulated panels will make our houses
3) more beautiful.
17. People will have to use alternative energy sources in the future because
1) solar panels are cheaper than regular roof shingles.
2) solar panels are very popular today.
3) people need more and more electricity.
4) electricity is getting more and more expensive.
18. According to architect Sarah Susanka, houses of the future never come into being because they are
1) rather expensive.
2) strange and unattractive.
3) difficult to construct.
4) too complicated.