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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018

Раздел ЧТЕНИЕ

Раздел «Чтение» включает три типа заданий:

• задание 10 — базового уровня — с кратким ответом на установление соответствия;

• задание 11 — повышенного уровня — с кратким ответом на установление соответствия;

• задания 12-18 — высокого уровня — с выбором ответа из четырёх предложенных вариантов.

Рекомендуемое время на выполнение заданий этого раздела — 30 мин. Максимально возможный первичный балл за весь раздел — 20.

Задание 10

Задание 10 направлено на проверку понимания основного содержания 7 небольших по объёму текстов. Это может быть единый текст, разделённый на смысловые абзацы, или отрывки из разных текстов. Ученику предлагается на выбор 8 заголовков, один из которых — лишний. Задача экзаменуемого — подобрать к каждому тексту заголовок, наилучшим образом отражающий основную идею отрывка. За каждое правильно установленное соответствие (т.е. за каждый правильно подобранный заголовок) учащийся получает 1 балл. Максимально возможное количество первичных баллов за это задание — 7.

Тексты обозначаются буквами А-G, а предлагаемые для выбора заголовки — цифрами 1-8. Под текстами есть табличка, в которую экзаменуемый записывает предварительные ответы.

По окончании выполнения этого задания следует перенести свои ответы в бланк ответов № 1 в окошко для задания 10. Не забудьте, что вы должны записать последовательность из 7 цифр без пробелов и знаков препинания.

РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ К ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ ЗАДАНИЯ 10

• Это задание не требует внимательного, вдумчивого чтения. Используйте приёмы просмотрового и поискового чтения.

• Сначала внимательно прочитайте заголовки и подчеркните в них ключевые слова.

• Затем прочитайте весь текст, чтобы понять его основное содержание.

• Не волнуйтесь, если вы не знаете некоторых слов. Возможно, они не играют важной роли в определении общего смысла текста.

• После этого приступайте к подбору заголовков. Прочитав отрывок, определите его основную идею, а затем подберите заголовок, который ближе всего её отражает. Основная идея — это главное, что хотел сказать автор отрывка.

• Помните, что в заголовке не обязательно будут те слова, которые встречаются в тексте. Скорее всего, основная мысль будет выражена другими словами, поэтому при подборе заголовка следует опираться не на слова, а на смысл высказывания.

• Не забудьте, что один заголовок — лишний. После того, как вы подобрали заголовки ко всем текстам, убедитесь, что оставшийся заголовок не подходит ни к одному отрывку.

• Рекомендуемое время на выполнение данного задания — 7 мин.

ОБРАЗЦЫ ЗАДАНИЯ 10 В ФОРМАТЕ ЕГЭ

1. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами A-G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовоклишний.

1. Harvest

2. Etymology

3. Toxicity

4. Growing indoors

5. Breeding

6. Cultivation

7. Culinary uses

8. History

A. The avocado originated in Mexico. The native uncultivated variety is small, with dark black skin, and contains a large seed. The oldest evidence of avocado use, which dates to around 10 000 BC, was found in a cave in Mexico. The avocado tree also has a long period of cultivation in Central and South America. A water jar shaped like an avocado, dating to AD 900, was discovered in the pre-Incan city of Chan Chan.

B. The word ‘avocado’ comes from the Spanish ‘aguacate’. Avocados were known by the Aztecs as ‘the fertility fruit’. In some countries of South America, such as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay, the avocado is known by its Quechua name ‘palta’. The fruit is sometimes called an ‘avocado pear’ or ‘alligator pear’ due to its shape and the rough green skin. It is known as ‘Butter Fruit’ in parts of India.

C. The avocado tree does not tolerate freezing temperatures, and can be grown only in subtropical or tropical climates. High winds reduce the humidity, dehydrate the flowers, and affect pollination. When even a mild frost occurs, premature fruit drop may occur. The trees also need well-aerated soils, ideally more than 1 m deep. These soil and climate conditions are available only in a few areas of the world.

D. An average avocado tree produces about 500 avocados annually. Commercial orchards produce an average of seven tonnes per hectare each year, with some orchards achieving 20 tonnes per hectare. The avocado is a climacteric fruit, which means it matures on the tree, but ripens off the tree. Avocados used in commerce are picked hard and green and kept in coolers until they reach their final destination.

E. Avocados are often grown from pits. This is done by removing the pit from a ripe, unrefrigerated avocado. The pit is placed in a jar or vase with tepid water. In four to six weeks, it should split and out should come roots and a sprout. Once the stem has grown a few inches, it is placed in a pot with soil. It should be watered every few days. Avocados have been known to grow large, so owners must be ready to repot the plant several times.

F. The fruit is not sweet, but fatty, and distinctly yet subtly flavoured. It is used in both savoury and sweet dishes, though in many countries not for both. The avocado is very popular in vegetarian cuisine as substitute for meats because of its high fat content. Generally, avocado is served raw, though some cultivars can be cooked for a short time without becoming bitter. Avocados are also used to make salads.

G. Avocado leaves, bark, skin, or pit are documented to be harmful to animals. Cats, dogs, cattle, and horses can be severely harmed or even killed when they consume them. Avocado leaves contain a fatty acid derivative, persin, which in sufficient quantity can cause equine colic and, without veterinary treatment, death. Birds also seem to be particularly sensitive to this compound. Negative effects in humans seem to be primarily in allergic individuals.

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2. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами A-G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовоклишний.

1. Last minute offer

2. Best catches without mistakes

3. Package holiday

4. A holiday for independent travellers

5. Educational tour

6. Green travel

7. Mountain adventure

8. Underwater exploration

A. La Baume is a holiday camping site that caters for tents and caravans. It is divided into two main areas, each with their own pool area and facilities. They are a short walk apart so it is easy to enjoy the benefits of both. La Baume also boasts a small gift shop, a swimwear shop and a supermarket, which offers most of the goods you would expect from a local convenience store.

B. Explore the UK and Ireland knowing your guides care as deeply about the environment as they do that you have a blast! SHAMROCKER and HAGGIS specialize in authentic tours of Ireland and Scotland. Locals run the companies with the goal of showing you the best of their lands while making as little negative impact as possible.

C. Here’s yet another great deal for an Alaska cruise. You’ll begin your adventure in Vancouver and call in the ports of Ketchikan and Skagway before disembarking in Seward. If you thought that being able to afford a dream cruise to Alaska was out of reach, think again. Check out this seven-night cruise that starts at only $349 per person, but you have to jump on it fast since the sailing date’s just days away.

D. Let us pick you up from selected locations for your day out at the Kennedy Space Centre! Listen to expert narration from our knowledgeable guides as we stop to get a bird’s eye view of the Space Shuttle launch pads. See other shows and exhibits at the Visitor Complex, including a chance to meet a real astronaut at the Astronaut Encounter Show. Try your hand at a mission control console and take a virtual moonwalk before returning home!

E. A dive vacation is much more than someone handing you a tank, transporting you to a dive site and saying, ‘Have Fun’. Divers want much more. Today, Aggressor Fleet yachts span the globe in twelve different countries and the list of exotic destinations keeps growing. The yachts have got private staterooms, an onboard chef and a slide film processing lab — amenities that were unheard of on recreational dive boats.

F. Experience the centuries-old Inca Trail trek, the most famous of Peru hiking tours. If you seek to explore the culture, history, and grandeur of the Peruvian Andes, this trip is for you. From the well-preserved ruins of Machu Picchu to lush cloud forests and snow-covered peaks, this ten-day tour promises the ultimate experience in Peru adventure travel. Whatever itinerary you choose, this vacation is sure to meet your wildest expectations.

G. It is not just the spring that offers great fishing. These Boundary Waters lakes and rivers offer excellent fishing opportunities all season long. Our guides live for fishing these waters and will help you eliminate hours of trial and error on the water. They are there to put you on the fish! Not to mention the addition of a camp cook. Wake in the morning to the smell of fresh brewed coffee and breakfast cooking on the fire.

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3. Прочитайте рекомендации учёных как построить счастливую семью. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами A-G. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Head-and-heart listening

2. Clear responsibilities

3. Family discussions

4. Flexibility

5. Balanced communication

6. Caring and appreciation

7. Family roots

8. Encouragement

A. Building a successful family is like building a home. Both need a plan. A successful family based on unity and love takes careful planning, but it’s worth every moment. The best way to be organized as a family is to talk together about family matters. By doing this, families enjoy a special closeness and stability. Memories made together during this time will bond and sustain your family through the years.

B. Family traditions promote feelings of warmth and unity. Trace your family tree and collect all the photographs of your ancestors that you can find. Public libraries and bookstores have books on genealogy for you to get you started. Compile a family oral history. Ask older relatives to talk about their parents and childhood and record their comments. These stories contain a glimpse of the past that would be lost otherwise.

C. How much time should families spend together? That varies from family to family. Families with young children usually spend most of their time together. Families with teenagers may spend less time together because teens naturally want to spend more time with their friends. Healthy families keep a good balance between ‘too much’ and ‘not enough’ time together. They spend enough time to satisfy all family members.

D. Strong families take time to talk to one another. They share their hopes and dreams, feelings and concerns. It means laying aside personal views and really trying to understand the other person’s point of view. This involves listening beyond words to the meanings and feelings attached to them. A good listener can better understand and respond to the needs and concerns of others if he or she cares about them.

E. Members of successful families feel they really belong in their family. They feel accepted for what they are and promote one another’s self-esteem. They celebrate their victories and help each other learn from mistakes. However, sometimes life gets rough and we need all the support we can get. A cheering word from a family member can really come in handy. Put the words on sticky notes and stick them in places where they can be easily found.

F. Strong families develop predictable routines and rules that govern their everyday life. Stable patterns empower a family to deal with challenges inevitable in family life; without such patterns, chaos would result. At the same time, strong families adapt their relationships and family rules when the need arises. Since no family knows what tomorrow will bring, being adaptive is a good trait for family members to develop.

G. Recent studies confirm the importance of love in families. Research shows that expressions of affection towards children enhance their development. Strong families notice positive aspects of each member. They notice the talents, skills and achievements that make a person unique. They find ways to be positive even when another family member makes a mistake and make a conscious effort to develop closeness and show love at home.

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4. Прочитайте короткие тексты о спорте и спортсменах. Установите соответствие между заголовками 1-8 и текстами A-G. Занесите свои ответы, в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Various applications

2. Changing styles

3. Benefits of sport

4. Choosing equipment

5. A sport or a hobby?

6. Unexpected victory

7. Breaking world record

8. Challenging sport

A. Playing sports is a great way to make exercise fun and help children to develop healthy habits. Sports can also help children improve their agility, balance, and coordination. Participating in sports can help build a child’s self-esteem. Studies show that children who play sports work harder in the classroom. Children also learn problem-solving skills and time management skills when they are part of a team.

B. Late last week BMX legend, Kevin Robinson, made history by flying higher than any human has ever gone on a BMX bike as part of Red Bull Experiment in New York City! Thousands of fans and spectators were on-site to catch all the action. This awesome feat had been a lifelong dream of Kevin’s which until now no one else has ever been able to pull off!

C. American tennis star Venus Williams has lost her place at the Madrid Open when she was beaten in the second- round part of the contest by Russian teenager Alisa Kleybanova. Williams is the current world number three and her 19-year-old opponent was unseeded so the defeat came as a big shock. Williams said she thought Kleybanova had won ‘by just being aggressive from both sides of the court’.

D. Skateboarding traces its roots to the seventies but it really reached the peak of its popularity in the mid-eighties to the present when major skateboard manufacturers propelled it to new heights. First, they started with half-pipe and very ramp skateboarding. As the years went by, the focus shifted to street skateboarding, which brought about a few changes in deck shape and wheel size.

E. While the majority of scuba diving is recreation, there are those that do it for a living as well. Scientific exploration and research is another area with a lot of scuba diving demand. They spend a lot of time in the water watching sea life cycles, and how microorganisms fit the whole underwater environment. There are also others that work in constructing underwater platforms that are often used for research as well as offshore oil.

F. Surfing is a sport which is undertaken by almost every individual in the U.S. This term is often referred to as a surface water sport in which the person surfing is carried along the face of a breaking ocean wave standing on a surfboard. Surfboards can also be used on rivers on standing waves. Some people practise this as a hobby while others become professional surfers.

G. If you’re interested in snowboarding, you will need to find out which length and width board is best for you. Both of these factors are critical to the success of snowboarding. Be aware that shorter boards are easier to manoeuvre, therefore making them great if you are just learning to snowboard. When it comes to width, it is important to consider foot size when choosing the width of a board.

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