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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018

Раздел АУДИРОВАНИЕ

Тексты для аудирования

ЗАДАНИЕ 1

1. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A-F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1-7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей буквой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы, в таблицу. У вас есть 20 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.

Now we are ready to start.

Speaker A

I have only two friends that I can really call ‘close friends’, others are just acquaintances. My idea of a perfect friend is that it’s a person who stays with you in ups and downs, whether you need money or a shoulder to cry on. He or she is always there to support you without being asked. You realise who your true friends are when you have a bad time in life. I think a perfect friend is also patient ... in short an ideal friend should be perfect with his or her friend.

Speaker B

I would like to have a friend of the same height as myself because usually all my friends are shorter than me. Of course my best friend has to be fun to talk to and she must be a good listener as well. But most importantly, a perfect friend is someone who tells me I have something on my face if I do and doesn’t just let me walk around with it there. A perfect friend is someone that I can trust, someone who is always with me. Unfortunately, all my previous ‘friends’ used to lie to me.

Speaker C

An ideal friend is a person who knows everything about you and shares all the happy and depressing moments of your life. When I cry, they simply cry with me. They are the ones who are totally caring and really understanding and they could help us in solving our problems. They cheer us up when we feel sad. They joke when we need to laugh. That’s what I call ‘perfect friends’. Nowadays, I don’t know whether I have a perfect friend or not because people are changing.

Speaker D

A true friend is someone who is loyal, and brings out the best in you. They never hesitate and tell the truth no matter whether you’ve done a good or a bad thing and try to improve you because they love you and care for you and would never ever let you down as they are your true friends. A true friend would never go behind your back and do something shady. In short, a perfect friend is someone who never talks behind your back no matter what... that hurts me most!!

Speaker E

Well, my best friend doesn’t really comfort me when I’m upset over bad grades at school. She’s rather short-tempered and often fights over little things, storms away ... but returns an hour later with a cake and an apology. She appears visibly bored with my chatter but, surprisingly, recalls even the most insignificant detail of what I’ve said. She has a weird way of showing that she cares for me but, in fact, she does care a lot! I think that she is my perfect friend for that simple reason that she’s ‘not-so-perfect’!

Speaker F

It’s great to have true friends! They love and care for you, they will always listen to you and stand by you. True friends are honest and will never betray you or hurt you. What really matters is that a close friend is there with you no matter what. Friends come and go, but a true one will never leave you in any situation. A perfect friend is someone who is always there to catch you when you fall, someone who you can have fun with. A close friend will stay with you forever!

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the texts again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

2. Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A-F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1-7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей буквой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. У вас есть 20 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.

Now we are ready to start.

Speaker A

I’ve learnt from first-hand experience what winter is like. I’ve seen places I’ve heard of or learnt about at school. Now I know what it’s like to travel by air, sea and rail and, of course, by road. I can say I’ve communicated with people in Europe and Asia, in America and the Middle East. I’ve tried their cuisine and I have seen all the wonders of the world. And I would say that travelling helps me gain new experience and lots of knowledge about the world we live in.

Speaker B

Lots of people believe that travel broadens the mind. In fact, it can sometimes confirm people in their own prejudices. A friend of mine went to Cyprus and when he came back, he complained bitterly that he could not find English food and everything was so foreign! If you travel with that kind of attitude, you’ll never learn anything about other places and people. Today many people travel because they want to ‘have a good time’ and usually on their terms.

Speaker C

I’ve just got back from a trip to Japan and, to my surprise, I found out that whatever people said about Japan was radically different from my own experience there. Talking to some locals, I learned more than school, or the Internet could teach me. Travel lets you understand customs and traditions of different countries. Although today travelling can be rather expensive, it really educates you and makes you knowledgeable. That’s why I believe we should travel more.

Speaker D

I don’t feel the need to travel anywhere as much as I did when I lived in Europe. Canada has a lot of the things I was looking for: beautiful scenery, quiet places, no beaches full of people with horrible accents demanding fish and chips, nice weather in the summer. I love my house and I don’t like leaving it. Seriously, I love lying on the sofa. My life’s pretty full these days, so when I have the chance to do nothing but lie around with the hounds, I’m as happy as a clam.

Speaker E

I feel sad for those people who have never travelled outside of their own hometown. There’s a whole world of cultures to meet out there. When you travel to other countries, you can see, feel and touch different ways of life. Some places will shock you, others will please you, but you’ll never be untouched by experiencing other cultures. You’ll then appreciate your own life and see things in a different way. You’ll learn and start thinking and, perhaps, it will change you forever.

Speaker F

I’ve been lucky enough to work all around the world and I have to say it has enlightened me in so many ways. The thing for me is that you have to meet new people. For me, talking to other people, learning how they think, what they do and how they live is the ‘mind-expanding’ side of travel that I enjoy. It’s useful because it puts into question all of the habits and beliefs that you take for granted, and shows us that all lifestyles and points of view are equally valid.

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the texts again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

3. Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A-F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1-7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей буквой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. У вас есть 20 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.

Now we are ready to start.

Speaker A

Well, my favourite leisure pastime is rather unusual. You see, I live in the country and for me there is nothing better than riding on horseback on a hot sunny day with a little breeze. There’s no one around and you can enjoy freedom from almost everything and everyone. I’ve been riding for 15 years and I can say that it’s an amazing feeling to be far off the ground and to be able to run so fast or to walk so slow. It’s very peaceful and relaxing at times but can also give an adrenaline rush.

Speaker B

I’m fond of crafts. I love making different items from wood and then painting them. I usually give them away just to make people smile! I also enjoy sewing, especially making doll clothes for my daughter. All these things relax me, not to mention that I get a bit of satisfaction from having made something useful. It’s great to give presents for my family and friends. I prefer making something personal rather than spending time in shops trying to find a useful present.

Speaker C

I don’t really have any leisure activity just because I don’t have much time for leisure. I come home after work and just relax in front of TV or read a good book. I used to love drawing while I was growing up. I could get lost in drawing, using just a pencil. I still have some old pictures I’ve drawn and they are like old familiar friends. I stopped drawing when I started a job in graphic design. Now, I don’t even have the desire to draw. Maybe I’ll pick it up again when the kids grow up.

Speaker D

I can’t say that I’m fat but I am really concerned about my weight because diabetes runs on both sides of my family. That’s why I have to exercise in my free time so that disease doesn’t set in. I ride 7 miles a day up and down the hills, mostly in fifth gear. I like it because it makes me feel energetic, helps keep my weight down, strengthens my legs and keeps my heart in good condition. I am a pro wrestler and for me breathing is a must. Riding my bike helps with that breathing process.

Speaker E

In the evenings I usually read a good book that takes me away from everything and puts me in a different world. But at weekends I love to explore the underground. It’s like climbing and hiking, all in one... but it’s in the dark so that adds another level of complexity I really enjoy. Besides, like in most extreme sports, you depend on your fellow cavers. You have your life in their hands, and vice versa. This forms a close bond between us. I suppose that attracts me most in this pastime.

Speaker F

I have only one favourite pastime. Every day I come home, lie on the sofa, turn on TV and just relax. What do I watch? It doesn’t matter. Anything from soaps to football matches. My TV set is my best friend and I am usually very annoyed when someone calls or turns up at the very interesting moment. The only problem is that I’ve put on a lot of weight. I can’t help eating crisps, sneakers and other snacks while watching. My friends say I’m a couch potato. So what? I like it that way.

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the texts again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

4. Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A-F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1-7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей буквой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы, в таблицу. У вас есть 20 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданием.

Now we are ready to start.

Speaker A

Mrs. Tyson was my piano teacher when I started school at the age of five, and she taught me right through till my last day of high school. She was an inspiration, and she made the piano one of my biggest passions. I also remember Mr. Suttle, who was my Science teacher for the last 3 years of high school. He made the subject come alive for us and was an inspiration to everyone. I can’t remember any bad teachers at school. Luckily, I was taught by really talented teachers.

Speaker B

My favourite teacher was Mr. Bonach, who really got me into reading. At first, he scared me a bit, but then I must say I learned a great deal from him. He was one of those people who I’d sit down and talk to just about the stuff going on in life. In class I was a student and he was a teacher. Out of class we were just two people sharing opinions. We disagreed in many things but taught me that it’s ok to express my opinion. It’s not that I hadn’t done it before, but I was scared to do it at school.

Speaker C

My least favourite teacher at school was Mrs. Lampark. I had her back in the 11th grade for English. Actually, she wasn’t a bad teacher. She never shouted at us although she was strict enough and never let us get away with incomplete homework. What annoyed me most of all, however, was that she used to talk to us like we were children. She thought none of us understood anything. It was really demeaning. I think she would have been much better at teaching 3rd or 4th grades.

Speaker D

I loved all my teachers, even those who were not really knowledgeable or inspiring. But my favourite one was Miss Brady, my English teacher. She was Australian and had the best accent ever because it was like an English accent with a tinge of Aussie. My mates and I used to spend our English lessons in a state of wonder. It’s funny how my Mum once said that my English improved when she was my teacher and then when she met her at school she understood why!

Speaker E

The teacher that made an impact on me was Mr. Peachy. He was my head of year in Upper school and my History teacher. He only had one eye and he used to scare me when I first started to study his subject. But he was sound in the end and actually gave me more chances than I deserved. I used to skip school a lot to play football and he sorted it out so that I could get time off to play. I was quite naughty but he liked me for some reason and this caused my admiration.

Speaker F

I hated American History. Our teacher gave us a huge list of vocabulary we had to learn by heart and I couldn’t find those words even in the book he gave us. It was so mind- numbing. Then for 2 weeks, he usually ranted about the dull notes he gave us, without even talking about things that were going to be in the test. He also gave us a weekly assignment to read a long article and to write about it, which was a total waste of time. I had a C in that class and it was my lowest grade!

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the texts again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

ЗАДАНИЕ 2

5. Вы услышите разговор друзей. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A-G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного вами ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

Now we are ready to start.

Kelly: Hi, Alex. Alex? Are you sleeping?

Alex: No, I’m not sleeping, just thinking.

Kelly: About what?

Alex: Well, I’ll be going back home to visit my family for a couple of weeks.

Kelly: That’s great. It’s been quite a while since you’ve seen them, hasn’t it? So, you must be thinking about how happy you’ll be to see them again.

Alex: Yes, that’s true. But I’m also thinking about what kinds of gifts I should bring back from England for everyone — my brother, my sister, her husband and son, and of course, for my parents.

Kelly: Of course, you want to bring back some traditional things, don’t you? How about a ‘Dumbledore’-style kite? You once mentioned that your nephew is fond of collecting kites.

Alex: Hey, that’s a good idea! You and I had a lot of fun flying Wizard kites together. I’m sure my nephew would get a kick out of flying an English-style kite, too.

Kelly: Great! You could also bring back some toy soldiers from the Royal Ceremonial Collection.

Alex: Kelly, you’re a genius! Royal Guard soldiers are not only very colourful, they represent English traditions too! My parents will really like them. Okay, now I have to think of something to buy for my sister. That’s a tough one!

Kelly: Don’t be so pessimistic, Alex. Does she like drinking tea? You could bring back an English teapot.

Alex: Of course! Another great idea! How do you think up the ideas so easily, Kelly? Now the toughest people to shop for — my brother and my sister’s husband. What in the world could I bring back for them?

Kelly: Didn’t you tell me that your brother is studying English now?

Alex: Yes, that’s right. He hopes to come to England after he graduates from university.

Kelly: So why not buy him a DVD so that he can watch a film in English?

Alex: Sure, he’d love that. He’s crazy about ‘Harry Potter’ film series, so he can have fun and learn at the same time! You amaze me, Kelly.

Kelly: Geniuses always do that! Okay, now for your brother-in-law. I think you’re on your own there!

Alex: Well, I could just get him an ‘I’ve been to London’ T-shirt.

Kelly: That’s a great idea!!

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the text again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

6. Вы услышите разговор соседей. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A-G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного вами ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

Now we are ready to start.

Fred: Well, James, I’ve got to admit you have a beautiful backyard. How do you manage to keep it? I suppose it’s hard work.

James: Oh, it does take time and patience. But I’ve also got a few secrets...

Fred: OK, OK, what do I have to do to make you reveal your secrets? You know if I had the money, I’d just hire a gardener.

James: No, Fred, you needn’t do that. I’d never hire a gardener. Working in the yard is the greatest form of relaxation that I know of. It’s so relaxing to hear birds singing!

Fred: You’re kidding, right?! I don’t have any birds in my backyard.

James: That’s not a problem. If you want the birds to stay in your backyard, then you must provide shelter for them. A birdhouse can be a cheap and easy way to do this.

Fred: I don’t think I’ll be able to make a birdhouse myself and there are no shops selling them either.

James: Then you can try limiting the amount of grass you have in your backyard. Most song birds don’t like grass, but prefer shrubs and trees. It’s good that you’ve got so many trees!

Fred: I would have never planted so many trees if I had known how much work they’d require.

James: You see, that’s your problem. Your attitude is all wrong.

Fred: Excuse me. Why is my attitude wrong? And what does attitude have to do with gardening?

James: You’ve got to love working in the backyard — that’s my secret!

Fred: Love working in the backyard? What! What kind of secret is that? I expected some special lawn mower, or a special type of gardening tools.

James: No, any lawn mower or tool will do the job. It’s all in the mind.

Fred: So you think that if I had a better feeling about my work in the garden, everything would be wonderful and I’d have a beautiful lawn and healthy plants like yours, right?

James: ... yes, yes that’s it. You’ve got it!

Fred: To tell you the truth, I think you’re crazy!! On second thoughts, I think I’ll just pay a gardener.

James: Ha-ha, that won’t work.

Fred: Why not?

James: Because he has to enjoy his gardening...

Fred: Please, James, thank you very much for your advice. But, don’t start it again!

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the text again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

7. Вы услышите разговор друзей. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A-G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного вами ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

Now we are ready to start.

Mike: Well, Jane, we’ve only got two weeks left before the run so I really think we have to finalise the route of the race today. And the prizes, have they been sorted out?

Jane: Yes, Mike, all done. Fiona’s in charge of them. Now, how many runners do you estimate will register for the race?

Mike: Well, it’s hard to say what the final number will be — at the moment we have 150 applicants but I fully expect there will be 200 by the race itself. Christopher said he thought we’d have 250 by next weekend but I think he’s being overoptimistic. Let’s say we’ll have about a couple of hundred at the most.

Jane: Fine. I’ll make a note of that. Now, where do you think we should have the first aid tent?

Mike: More importantly surely, where will the starting line be?

Jane: I think you have to start somewhere that has a place to warm up. How about the Town hall as the car park there is big enough for the runners to do their exercises.

Mike: Actually, that’s a good point. Let’s start there and then we could have the first aid tent nearby, either in Midsummer Park or even in the garden of the Mayor’s residence, if he can be persuaded to give his permission. Personally, I don’t think he is the most charitable Mayor the town has had.

Jane: I don’t think you are being very fair. Anyway, the caterers thought the park could best be employed as the refreshment area as there are plenty of places to sit down. You know and there are permanent wooden tables and benches there.

Mike: You’ve really got on with organising this event, haven’t you? But look, we should have another first aid tent somewhere on the route in case the runners have problems. A half way point — the library or the station park. The railway, not the police station!

Jane: You’re probably right! But we don’t need a big tent, just a first aid point and yes, the train station car park would be perfect. Err, ... do you think the athletes need somewhere to take a break if they are feeling weary? We could use the entrance to the library. It’s ideal as it has such a huge portico where the athletes could relax in the shade.

Mike: Good idea.

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the text again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

8. Вы услышите разговор друзей. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A-G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного вами ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

Now we are ready to start.

Jane: Hi, Ann. I’ve got great news! My parents are going to Russia on business and they are taking me, too. So, we’ll stay in Moscow for a week!

Ann: That’s great! I have always wanted to show you my native city.

Jane: What would you recommend us to see, in the first place?

Ann: First of all, you should visit the Kremlin, which is very impressive. Here you can admire ancient cathedrals and churches, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, from which you can get a fantastic view of the Kremlin and the city. Here you can also visit the Armoury and see the Tsar Bell and the Tsar Cannon, which are good examples of the early masters’ work.

Jane: I know that the Kremlin was rebuilt several times, wasn’t it?

Ann: Yes, it was. Originally it was built of oak logs, and in 1367 Prince Dmitri Donskoi built a wall of white stone around the Kremlin. Only a hundred years later tsar Ivan III (the third) built new walls and towers of red brick, as we see them today.

Jane: And where shall we go after the Kremlin?

Ann: If you leave the Kremlin by the Trinity Gate, you will come to the Alexandrovsky Gardens. There you’ll see the eternal flame burning at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. There are always a lot of flowers in honour of the soldiers who died in World War II. From here you can easily get to Red Square, which is the heart of the city, and enjoy a wonderful view of St. Bazil’s Cathedral.

Jane: I think it’ll be great. Are there any famous monuments in Moscow?

Ann: Of course, there are. In Red Square you can see a monument to Minin and Pozharsky, which is one of the oldest monuments in Moscow. And if you go down Tverskaya Street, you’ll see a monument to Yuri Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow, and a monument to Alexander Pushkin, a famous Russian poet.

Jane: Moscow is a city of theatre-goers and its theatres are famous all over the world. Is that so?

Ann: Exactly! And the best way to spend an enjoyable evening is to visit the Bolshoi Theatre, which is world- famous for its operas and ballets. Next to the Bolshoy Theatre there is the Academic Maly Theatre, the oldest drama theatre in Moscow. Moscow theatres are extremely popular with Muscovites.

Jane: Well, I see that Moscow is a very large city and it will take long to see its main sights.

Ann: Yes, indeed. I’ve told you about the main musts for the visitor. But there are a lot of other places which are no less interesting.

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the text again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

ЗАДАНИЯ 3-9

9. Вы услышите интервью с автором детективных романов. В заданиях 3-9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды. У вас есть 50 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданиями.

Now we are ready to start.

Reader’s Digest: Mr. Duffy, when did you first realise you wanted to write a detective novel?

Michael Duffy: When I was at college, I had a go at literary fiction but it never worked out because I just didn’t have a subject I cared about. Then, when I turned 41, a friend of mine gave me a detective novel and I started reading crime fiction. I found I was gripped; something in the person I am responded to these books. And I thought to myself, ‘Why not give it a go?’ However, it wasn’t until 2009 that I published my first novel.

RD: What especially attracts you in crime fiction?

Michael Duffy: I love the intensity in the work of Michael Connelly. He is such a clever writer. I was hooked by Connelly’s character Harry Bosch because he’s a policeman with a sense of vocation. I know a number of policemen like that, and I think that passion for your work is something male readers in particular respond to. There are a lot of men who wish their job was just as all-consuming and fulfilling as fighting crime.

RD: We’ve read a huge number of Australian detective novels to make our choices for Select Editions, and ‘The Tower’ impressed us with its authentic plot and setting. How did you create this strong sense of place?

Michael Duffy: I tried to do it through the narrative voice, and it was quite a challenge! In my experience, Australian police are fairly laconic, both on the job and when they’re talking about what they do. They’re rather dry and pragmatic. If I’d internalized their voices in the book, it wouldn’t have worked, it would have been too dull. So I had to create a new voice for the book that was Australian but compressed.

RD: Your next novel is also about Nicholas Troy, isn’t it?

Michael Duffy: Yes. ‘The Tower’ is the first in a series of crime novels about Sydney. I call it the city of sharks. The sunlit surface is bright and glittering, but predators swim just beneath it, ready to snatch something on the surface they like the look of. This is a beautiful place but it can be a hard one because of crime. In ‘The Simple Death’ a man falls off a ferry and dies and an elderly lady dies after a long painful illness. Could these two deaths be linked? It is this investigation that occupies Troy’s time, but he is also being troubled by a few other events in his life. He thinks a lot about the choices he makes in his work and his life, and tries to do his best. This novel is a sophisticated but hugely entertaining mystery, with a plot ripped straight out of tomorrow’s headlines.

RD: Has writing about crime disillusioned you at all, or made you cynical, over the years?

Michael Duffy: Writing about real-life crime can be depressing because you have to focus on the criminal aspects. But I’m never depressed when I’m writing a crime novel, because I’m engaged with the story and it’s really captivating. As readers, we don’t expect realism from detective fiction; we’re interested in the battle between good and bad. Some of the most important stuff in the life of the characters is actually arguments with their superiors, and problems with their day-to-day work. There’s a specific structure in a detective novel that we expect to find, just as we do in a symphony or other classic works of art. And it’s satisfying! Although nobody expects detective novels to end happily, we always find out who has committed a crime, whereas in real life, unfortunately, we often don’t!

RD: Are there any more cases for Nicholas Troy to solve?

Michael Duffy: Of course there are. I’m currently working on a new novel, and I have no plans to stop writing.

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the text again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

10. Вы услышите рассказ знаменитой теннисистки.

В заданиях 3-9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1,2 или 3, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды. У вас есть 50 секунд, чтобы, ознакомиться с заданиями.

Now we are ready to start.

When I’m stopped on the street, people often want to tell me that they’ve never forgotten my match against Bobby Riggs in 1973. Every single day of my life, people come up to me and say, ‘I remember watching you play that match, and win.’ Men, especially, tell me this. It’s amazing. They say, ‘I have a daughter now, and she’s ten years old. I’m raising my daughter differently because of seeing you play that match.’ They really insist that their daughters and sons have equal opportunities. It’s been a huge shift in attitude. These men are so different from their fathers and grandfathers.

My parents have always been the biggest inspiration in my life. They worked three jobs so that my brother, Randy, and I could pursue our athletic dreams as kids. They taught us great lessons, which are particularly relevant today, with the economy the way it is. My parents always said, ‘If you don’t have it, don’t spend it.” When I was eleven and wanted to buy my first tennis racket, they didn’t buy it for me. I had to work odd jobs to earn it. Their attitude was, ‘Let’s see if you’re really interested. Let’s see if you have the focus.’ I guess I solved that one!

Actually, I don’t have much free time; but when I do have a spare minute, I enjoy reading. My favourite book is Banker to the Poor: Micro-Lending and the Battle against World Poverty by Muhammad Yunus, the economist who won the Nobel Prize in 2006. It’s great. He explains how he developed the Grameen Bank and how, through the concept of microfinancing, he was able to change a lot of people’s lives. As soon as he gave out a small loan to different people, he began to visualize what that could lead to. He saw the potential. He is one of my heroes. That’s what I try to do for tennis and other things.

The person I admire most of all is Julie Foudy, former Olympic soccer star. She walks into a room and just lights it up. We see each other every October at the Women’s Sports Foundation dinner in New York, which brings together athletes from over 130 sports. I’ve always looked up to her because she’s energetic, bright, and possesses all of the qualities that go into leadership, which sports is a great venue for. Sometimes she just calls me and says, ‘Help!’ We should all ask for help when we need it, particularly when we’re young — and, you know, when you need help. It takes courage to ask for it. With her energy and her leadership qualities, Julie can do just about anything. That’s great!

People always think that being a great sportsman doesn’t require any effort. They believe that success is easy. Absolutely wrong! Athletes must have a daily discipline of mind, body, and soul. They have to do it all as physical exertion teaches tenacity and will power. But you cannot just be “dead from the neck up.” It is also a way of thinking, the mental side that often spells the difference between an average hitter and a good hitter and between a good hitter and a great hitter. Life is difficult sometimes. But every time I see a ball bounce, I think about bouncing back myself. It’s a philosophy.

I don’t only think about winning tennis matches. I also think about what I’ve done off the court. Everything I’ve done is trying to push the envelope, whether it’s on or off the court, to create a more level playing field for others and to help people have a better quality of life. That’s what I care about.

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the text again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

11. Вы услышите интервью с комедийным актёром Джеффом Грином. В заданиях 3-9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1,2 или 3, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды. У вас есть 50 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданиями.

Now we are ready to start.

Interviewer: Mr. Green, it’s a great pleasure to talk to you today. Have you always been a comedian?

Jeff Green: Well, do you know that most comedians are the youngest in the family, and most are from dysfunctional families? And I tick both of those boxes. My parents were married three times each. The thing is that most comedians are a little bit anxious. Because if you try to find something funny, it’s usually an itch you’re trying to scratch. Relaxed people generally don’t need to be the life and soul of the party. It’s nervous people who always try to prove themselves, because they are very funny and make good stand-up comedy. So, you know, I just came into this.

Interviewer: How did that happen? Did you just start doing acts, using a lot of relationships as jokes?

Jeff Green: Well, I started in the UK around 1988. No one really talked about relationships at that time. About 50% of the audience were women, but they weren’t being talked to or talked about. And I just made one joke about my girlfriend, and it took off from there. That was when I was in my twenties, when I still found women fascinating and mysterious. I’m over it now.

Interviewer: Do you enjoy meeting other comedians?

Jeff Green: Do I enjoy it? Yeah, I do. It can sometimes be a little bit bizarre, but you know, I love being around them. In this job, you’ve got to like your own company, because you’re on your own a lot. You’ve got to like being on your own and you’ve got to like being on the road. If sitting in a hotel room for three days isn’t your thing, then it’s not for you. That’s my whole life. I’ve sat in hotels and gone to different towns and you know, been away from home.

Interviewer: How much of a year do you spend travelling?

Jeff Green: Well, I used to travel in the UK, but England’s so small that I could always get home at night. Australia is huge. So I probably do less gigs but I’m away from home more because I’d have to be in Brisbane for five days and then I’d have to be in Sydney for five days. I reckon I’m probably away five weeks of the year, condensed out. But that’s probably away once five or six days out of every three weeks.

Interviewer: Do you do gigs all over the world?

Jeff Green: I’m quite a regional comedian. I tend to work best in England. I’ve performed to Americans in Singapore and in London but I’ve never been to the USA. I’ve performed in New Zealand, Hong Kong, Australia obviously, and lots of gigs in Europe, where you’re performing to Europeans, not in their first language. You have to speak a little bit more slowly and you can’t speak in dialect.

Interviewer: Is the material the same?

Jeff Green: Well, those about relationships are generally universal. I used to change some things, references such as Tesco to Coles, or Marks & Spencer to some local brand. But the actual audience don’t want you to change the words. They’d rather you took the time to explain what the joke was in England, rather than try to fool them into thinking that you’re talking about their environment. If you can explain the meaning briefly and there’s a funny payoff, it’s worth doing it.

Interviewer: What do you do before going onstage? Do you have a ritual of any sort?

Jeff Green: I do a lot of visualisation before shows. All I do is I put myself on stage before I go on, so I’m actually mentally onstage. The first few moments are of me catching up with the atmosphere and the audience, so that when you actually go onstage, you’re actually firing off something. I think most people are naturally slow-starters, because you can’t just walk into a room full of strangers and be friends with everybody. But in stand-up comedy, you’re expected to be. That’s your job.

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the text again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.

12. Вы услышите интервью с учёным. В заданиях 3-9 запишите в поле ответа цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды. У вас есть 50 секунд, чтобы ознакомиться с заданиями.

Now we are ready to start.

Chris: To bring us up-to-date with events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, we’re joined by Dr. Ian Farnan from the Department of Earth Sciences at Cambridge University.

Dr. Farnan: Hello, Chris.

Chris: First of all, could you just give us a quick round up on what you work on?

Dr. Farnan: My main research is on the disposal of nuclear waste and in particular I’m going to head up a research laboratory funded by the nuclear authority on disposing of spent nuclear fuel. Radioactivity leaks from spent nuclear fuel by its interaction with water. Actually, radioactivity can leak out through broken pipes and other fractures. However, what happened in Fukushima was the interaction of water with fresh fuel.

Chris: When the tsunami struck, it knocked out the backup generators, which were there to pump water through the core, and disabled those generators. What then unfolded?

Dr. Farnan: Well, there was a little bit of extra leeway. The plant had some batteries which ran for a little while, for about 8 hours, and then they just ran out. At that point they had no way of pumping the water through the reactor to keep it cool. So the water in the reactor started to boil and eventually, it came out to what’s called a pressure regulator which was below the reactor in a large pit.

Chris: What was the main reason for the explosion then?

Dr. Farnan: Well, there must have been some interaction with the zirconium alloy, which started to get oxidised at high temperatures. The fuel heated up and that produced some hydrogen. So there was a mixture of hydrogen gas in this big pit below the reactor. At some point, the pressure was getting too high and the operators realised that in order to preserve the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel, they needed to vent that pit. When they did that, the hydrogen came out and it obviously encountered some oxygen and there was an explosion, and that’s what you saw on TV.

Chris: But subsequent to that, what was the biggest threat? Was it the fact that you had no way of cooling a nuclear core that was still producing quite a bit of heat?

Dr. Farnan: Exactly. If you take the Daiichi-1, I think it was about 700-megawatts. So, when the batteries ran out, the reactor was immediately shut down, but even though you stop the critical reaction at that point with the rods in, you still get 5% of the power, and that’s the thermal power. So the thermal power reactor is three times the electrical power. That’s just the efficiency of the generating process. So you have to keep a nuclear reactor cool after it shuts down. Now, what happened at Fukushima was that it went into what is called a ‘station blackout’, and people planned to get power back in four or five hours. That didn’t happen at Fukushima because the tidal wave was so great that it overwhelmed their diesels and it overwhelmed something called ‘service water 2’ But in any event, they couldn’t get any power to the big pumps.

Chris: Could you compare the Chernobyl disaster and the Fukushima accident?

Dr. Farnan: I have already said that it’s worse than Chernobyl and I’ll stand by that. There was an enormous amount of radiation given out in the first two to three weeks of the event. And add the wind blowing in-land. It could very well have brought the nation of Japan to its knees. I mean, there was so much contamination that it could have cut Japan in half. We are well beyond where any science has ever gone at that point and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi plant is not a condition that anyone has ever analysed.

You have 15 seconds to complete the task. (Pause 15 seconds.)

Now you will hear the text again. (Repeat.)

This is the end of the task. You now have 15 seconds to check your answers.





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