АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018


Задания 32-38


Средства связи в тексте

При написании сочинений и в устной речи мы используем различные слова и выражения, позволяющие проследить логическую взаимосвязь между тем, что уже было сказано, и тем, что мы собираемся сказать. Эти слова могут употребляться как в начале, так и в середине предложения.

Группы связующих слов


Введение дополнительной информации:

to begin with, besides, in addition, additionally, what is more, moreover, more than that, furthermore, on top of this, firstly, first of all, second/ secondly, finally, by the way, etc.

To begin with, mobile phones are small enough to fit into our pockets. Besides, they allow us to send small messages, which is very cheap. What is more, with new multimedia mobiles, we can log on to the Internet, pay for things, play games and take photos to send to friends.

Введение контрастирующей информации:

nevertheless, yet, however, though, although, even though, in spite of/despite, whereas, while, on the other hand, on the contrary, by/in contrast, etc.

On the other hand, some people believe that radiation from mobiles influences our health and can even lead to cancer. However, I cannot agree with them.

Despite the fact that radiation from mobile phones can be rather harmful, people still cannot do without them.

Выражение причинно-следственных связей:

as a result, consequently, therefore, because, so, as, for this reason, that is why, thus, owing to, due to, etc.

We must also think about people who live in the centre of big cities. The streets in the centre are usually narrow, therefore people are often stuck in traffic for many hours and, as a result, arrive late at their destination.

Выражение временной последовательности событий:

at first, then, after that, an hour later, suddenly, next, meanwhile, finally, eventually, at last, in the end, etc.

We got everything ready and set off. We had canoed a few miles when we noticed that the sky was cloudy. Thenit started raining. We carried on and twenty minutes later we came to some rapids. Suddenly, Sam shouted, ‘Look over there!’

Примеры и разъяснения:

for example, for instance, such as, kije, in other words, namely, etc

Every year thousands of students take important exams. For example, students have to pass exams with excellent grades in order to get a place in a university.

Ссылки на другие источники/факты/мнения:

according to, with reference to, it is believed that, actually, in fact, in practice, as a matter of fact, etc

According to researchers, TV viewing is the most popular leisure pastime among American teenagers. In fact, an average teenager watches TV about 30 hours a week.

Выражение мнения и отношения:

in my opinion, from my point of view, as far as I am concerned, as for me, personally, fortunately/unfortunately, luckily etc

In my opinion, people should find more effective punishments for criminals than prison because imprisonment, unfortunately, works adversely against crime.

Вывод и заключение:

to sum up, to conclude, in conclusion, all in all, in short/in brief, etc

In conclusion, I would argue that zoos do not seem to help endangered species and keeping animals behind bars only for the sake of our entertainment is not quite fair.

4.1. Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 1—10. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 1—10, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.

Hitchhiking in Spain

Spain is such an obvious holiday destination that you almost take its beauty for granted. (1) ____________, it’s the second country (after Italy) with the largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites! Every village is a real medieval beauty! So if you are fond of photography, Spain is definitely the place to go.

(2) ____________, the best way to explore Spain is hitchhiking. (3) ____________, Spain is really easy to hitchhike in terms of weather. (4) ____________ it can get quite hot in summer, the weather is generally pleasant and it seldom rains. (5) ____________, Spanish people are friendly and they understand the idea of hitchhiking, (6) ____________ they don’t normally ask for money. (7) ____________ being sociable, not many local people speak English, so it’s a good idea to learn some Spanish expressions before you set off. If you speak a bit of Spanish, it can get you a long way.

(8) ____________, hitchhiking can be extremely time consuming. The reason for this might be that almost every family owns a car and they seem to use it for absolutely everything. (9) ____________, they often visit friends in the nearby village or town. (10) ____________ when you finally get a lift, it may only be for 10 km and then you will have to wait for another ten-kilometre lift.

So if you are a sociable person and have a lot of spare time, you’ll definitely stand a chance of hitchhiking in Spain.

1. 1) Despite

2) Besides

3) Moreover

4) However

2. 1) Apart from that

2) In my opinion

3) For example

4) As a result

3. 1) Nevertheless

2) What is more

3) First of all

4) Secondly

4. 1) Despite

2) In spite

3) Although

4) However

5. 1) Besides

2) Nevertheless

3) On the contrary

4) Yet

6. 1) for example

2) therefore

3) although

4) in spite

7. 1) Despite

2) In spite

3) Otherwise

4) Though

8. 1) As a result

2) Moreover

3) That is why

4) Nevertheless

9. 1) However

2) Therefore

3) For example

4) In my opinion

10. 1) First of all

2) That is why

3) Apart from that

4) On the contrary