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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018

Раздел ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Задания 32-38

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК ПО ЛЕКСИКЕ

Близкие по значению слова

Употребление so/such/too/enough

SUCH или SO

so + прилагательное/наречие

so + many/much/few/little + существительное

such (a/an) + существительное

such (a/an) + прилагательное + существительное

such + a lot of + существительное

Артикль a/an используется с исчисляемым существительным в единственном числе.

She is so beautiful!

I’ve got so many friends!

He is such a bore!

My Mum is such a wonderful cook!

We’ve spent such a lot of money.

За предложением с so/such может следовать придаточное предложение с союзом that:

It was such a nice day that we decided to go for a walk.

TOO или ENOUGH

too + прилагательное/наречие + (for sb/sth) + to + V

(not) + прилагательное/наречие + enough + (for smb) + to + V

(not) enough + существительное + (for sb/sth) + to + V

He is too young to watch this film.

He isn’t old enough to watch this film.

There isn’t enough time for us to do this work properly.

2.1. Вставьте so, such, such a, too или enough.

1. He’s difficult to understand because he speaks ______ quickly.

2. Jack isn’t tall ______ to play basketball.

3. I like Tom and Ann. They’re ______ nice people.

4. It was a great holiday. We had ______ good time.

5. This test is ______ easy for me. I would like a more difficult one.

6. I was surprised that he looked ______ well after ______ serious illness.

7. The weather is ______ bad today for having a picnic.

8. Everything is ______ expensive these days, isn’t it?

9. I can get lost in this city because I don’t know it well ______.

10. I have to go. I didn’t realise it was ______ late.

11. He always looks good. He wears ______ nice clothes.

12. It was ______ boring film that I fell asleep while I was watching it.

13. I couldn’t believe the news. It was ______ shock for me.

14. There wasn’t ______ air in the room so I opened the window.

15. They’ve got ______ much money, they don’t know what to do with it.

2.2. Вставьте so, such, such a, too или enough.

1. I didn’t realise you lived ______ long way from the city centre.

2. The food at the restaurant was ______ awful. I’ve never eaten ______ tasteless food.

3. I think she works ______ hard for her age. She looks ______ tired all the time.

4. The weather is ______ lovely today! I didn’t expect it to be ______ nice day.

5. I can’t decide what to do. It’s ______ difficult problem and we’ve got ______ little time to solve it.

6. It’s ______ hot here that I can’t breathe! Can’t we open a window?

7. There weren’t ______ people to begin a meeting.

8. We ate ______ delicious food. However, the portions were ______ big for me.

9. Mary is ______ beautiful! She’s got ______ lovely hair!

10. We had to pay ______ high price for our hotel in London that we didn’t have ______ money to spend on presents.

Употребление make/do

Перед тем как приступить к выполнению упражнений, запомните слова, с которыми сочетаются глаголы make и do.

Do

Make

a crossword

a bargain

an effort

a favour

a cake/pizza

an example of smb

a job

a choice

an exception

a lot of damage

a complaint

an excuse (for)

a service

a compliment

an impression

a subject at school

a contribution to

an offer

a translation

a decision

certain/sure

an examination

a difference

ends meet

an exercise

a discovery

friends (with sb)

an experiment

a fool of

fun of sb/sth

badly/well

a fortune

marks on the wall

business

a guess

matters/things worse

harm/good

a living

money

justice

a loss

noise

lessons

a mess

one’s way back/home

miracles/wonders

a mistake

peace/war

one’s best/worst

a phone call

preparations

one’s duty

a profit

progress

one’s hair/teeth

a promise

sense

one’s homework

a request

time (for)

repairs

a reservation

the bed

research

a suggestion

(the best) use of

right/wrong

a speech

the most/best (of sth)

someone a good turn

a trip/journey

the/some coffee

sth for a living

a will

trouble

the housework

an appointment

up one’s mind

the shopping

an arrangement

way for

the washing-up

an attempt

yourself at home

2.3. Вставьте глаголы do и make в правильной форме.

1. Don’t forget to ______ your teeth before you go to bed.

2. Exercise can ______ a big difference to your health.

3. He finds it difficult to ______ friends.

4. I hate ______ housework.

5. I’d like to ______ an appointment with Doctor Evans, please.

6. I’ve ______ a complaint to the police about the noise.

7. ______ certain that we have enough juice for the party.

8. You ______ the washing-up and I’ll do the drying.

9. Many students are finding it difficult to ______ ends meet.

10. Scientists are planning to ______ experiments to test the effectiveness of the new drug.

11. She had to ______ some very difficult decisions.

12. What do you ______ for a living?

13. ______ yourself at home while I go and find those photographs.

14. Neat clothes usually ______ a good impression on people.

15. Try not to make much noise when you go upstairs.

2.4. Прочитайте текст о влиянии техники на подростков и вставьте глаголы do и make в правильной форме.

Many experts point out that technology has put new emphasis on writing. Nowadays teens are increasingly using their mobiles and computers for communicating. They use a new form of their language, which affects their writing abilities. Special research, which has been (1) ______ recently, shows that teens who regularly use text messaging (2) ______ more mistakes in writing.

Technology makes teens lazy. Many teenagers rely on technology to do all their work and some of them can’t even (3) ______ simple maths without a calculator. Another bad effect of using technology is addiction. Computer addicts don’t (4) ______ their homework properly and neglect their everyday duties. To avoid this, parents ought to (5) ______ sure that social networking and chatting happen after homework is over, or at timed intervals.

Excessive computer use can result in obesity since fats are not removed from the body. Parents don’t always (6) ______ an effort to promote more physical activities for their children, and teens sink deeper into the life of physical inactivity. To (7) ______ matters worse, radiation from mobile phones, TV and computer screens (8) ______ harm to teens’ health leading to serious diseases. That is why it (9) ______ sense for parents to limit the time teens spend using technology and increase the time for sports activities. We shouldn’t reject technology. We should know how to (10) ______ the best use of it.

Употребление have/take

Перед тем как приступить к выполнению упражнений, запомните слова, с которыми сочетаются глаголы have и take.

Have

Take

Have/take

(an) experience

a decision

(no/an)

a chat

a deep/long breath

interest in

a dance

a message

a seat

a dream

a photo(graph)/a picture

a bath/

a drink

a pill

a shower

a headache/toothache

a risk

a break

a lesson

a taxi

a chance

a meal

a test/an exam

a guess

a meeting

action

a holiday

a party/celebration

advantage of

a look (at)

a picnic

an exam

a nap

a quarrel

care (of)

a rest/

a say

measures

а break

a smoke

no notice of

a swim

a talk

one’s medicine

a walk

a try/a go

orders

control of

a word

part in

control over

an accident

pity

responsibility (for)

time

an argument

place

an effect on sb

power

an operation

pride in

confidence in

smb’s advice

difficulty in

sth for granted

dinner/lunch, etc.

sth into account

fun

take one’s chance

no idea (of)

the bus/train/metro, etc.

no intention of

the lead

no respect for

the trouble

something to eat trouble with

turns

2.5. Вставьте глаголы have и take в правильной форме.

1. Mr. Jackson, can I ______ a word with you, please. It’s very important.

2. Could you ______ care of my hamster while I’m on holiday, please?

3. My parents’ divorce ______ a big effect on me.

4. They were always together so I just ______ it for granted that they were married.

5. Choosing a future career, we should ______ into account our preferences and abilities.

6. I’m absolutely free today. Let’s ______ dinner together.

7. James ______ an accident at work and had to go to hospital.

8. I ______ no trouble finding the address on the Internet.

9. We ______ great pride in Russia’s scientific achievements.

10. We were late for the train so we ______ a taxi.

11. It’s a pity that my father ______ no notice of my hobby.

12. Unfortunately, many tourists ______ no respect for the countries they visit.

13. Susan ______ a deep breath and started to speak.

14. Last year I ______ part in different competitions.

15. The 2014 Winter Olympics ______ place in Russia.

2.6. Прочитайте текст об экологических проблемах и вставьте глаголы have или take в правильной форме.

Green woods with animals, insects, mushrooms, berries and fresh water with fish in it is something we (1) ______ for granted today. Nevertheless, natural resources are not endless, and if we don’t (2) ______ action now, soon we will (3) ______ difficulty finding blueberries in the forest or a glass of clean water to drink. Scientists are still (4) ______ an argument, being unable to point out the main threats to the environment. Now it’s time we (5) ______ a decision!

We want everyone to (6) ______ part in protecting our environment. By (7) ______ advantage of our knowledge and our experiences we’ll steadily improve our environmental work. First of all, we should (8) ______ control of factories and plants that pour their waste into rivers and lakes. They must (9) ______ responsibility for treating the waste they produce. Secondly, we must (10) ______ measures to stop the destruction of our environment. Most people (11) ______ no idea how many trees are cut down annually to make furniture or paper. However, deforestation may (12) ______ a negative effect on the climate of our planet. Furthermore, people (13) ______ no respect for animals killing them for their meat, skin or fur. If we (14) ______ no notice of all these violent actions and misuse our natural resources, we will finally (15) ______ trouble living on Earth!

Употребление say/tell/talk/speak

say

В прямой речи: Tom said, ‘This is great!’

В косвенной речи (said that): Tom said (that) he might be late.

В устойчивых словосочетаниях: say your prayers, say yes/no, say a few words, say something (nothing, etc.), the letter says, the newspaper says, the clock says, the label says, people say ..., let’s just say (that)..., have sth to say

tell

В косвенной речи (told somebody): Tom told his friend that he would visit London.

В устойчивых словосочетаниях: tell sb about sth, tell sb to do sth, tell sb (that), tell the twins apart, tell a mile off, tell tales, tell a story, tell a joke, tell the truth, tell a lie

talk

To talk about означает «обсуждать что-то внеформальной обстановке»: We talked about our school for hours.

Говорить, произносить слова: How do babies learn to talk?

В устойчивых словосочетаниях: talk to/with sb, talk sense, talk nonsense/rubbish

speak

Говорить на каком-либо языке: to speak English, to speak French

Говорить громко/тихо/четко: to speak loudly/quietly

She spoke the words as clearly she I could.

В разговоре по телефону: ‘Hello, may I speak to Mr. Langdon?’ ‘Yes, speaking.’

To speak about something употребляется в болееформальном контексте (to give a talk on sth): The mayor will be speaking at their graduation ceremony.

В устойчивых словосочетаниях: speak to/with sb; generally/strictly speaking, speak for itself, speak for

yourself, speaking of ..., to be on speaking terms

2.7. Вставьте глаголы say, tell, speak или talk в правильной форме.

1. When Jack saw me yesterday, he __________ ‘You look great!’

2. Generally __________, it’s quite a good hospital.

3. He __________ us the answer an hour ago.

4. I’m going to __________ something to the neighbours about the noise.

5. The teacher was very upset by our misbehaviour and __________ to us angrily.

6. You do __________ sense sometimes, James.

7. The clock __________ it’s five past ten.

8. It’s impossible to __________ the twins apart.

9. Simon __________ to his mother on the phone every week.

10. Do we always have to __________ the truth?

2.8. Вставьте глаголы say, tell, speak или talk в правильной форме.

1. The policeman __________ me to follow him to the nearest police station, which wasn’t very far.

2. She __________ goodbye to her parents and left.

3. I’ve never __________ a lie in my whole life.

4. If you aren’t in a hurry, let’s __________ about your future marriage.

5. The lecturer is going to __________ about the modern novel.

6. Could you __________ us a few words about yourself?

7. Look! The label __________ it was produced in France.

8. At the age of 10, Julia already __________ three foreign languages.

9. ‘Close the door,’ my father __________ angrily. He didn’t want me to bother him.

10. My sister could already __________ when she was two.

Употребление look/glance/stare/scan/skim/see/watch

look

посмотреть на что-л./кого-л. (look at sth/sb):

David looked at his watch. выглядеть:

‘You look gorgeous!’ said my sister.

быть похожим на кого-либо (to look like sb):

Jane looks like her mother. She has got the same hair and eyes.

glance

бросить взгляд, взглянуть мельком, бегло просмореть:

Robin glanced around the cafe.

Can you glance through my report, please?

stare

пристально глядеть, уставиться; вглядываться:

Don’t stare at people like that, it’s rude.

skim

бегло просматривать что-либо:

I’ve only had time to skim over the plans for the new buildings.

scan

внимательно осматривать с целью поиска:

She was nervous and kept scanning the crowd for Paul.

see

видеть, увидеть:

I can’t see very well so I have to wear glasses.

watch

смотреть, наблюдать:

She watched the children playing football.

2.9. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. Глаголы необходимо поставить в правильную форму.

glance stare look skim scan see (2) watch

1. Susanna quickly __________ at her watch. She was going to be late.

2. Cats __________ in the dark better than people.

3. When I called Jack yesterday, he was still __________ TV.

4. I’ve only __________ his letter; I haven’t read it carefully yet.

5. I’m sure I have never __________ this man before.

6. Chuck sat quietly for hours __________ into the distance, thinking of what might have been.

7. You __________ worried today! Has anything happened?

8. Dave __________ the horizon for any sign of the boat.

Употребление historic/historical/prehistoric; economic/economical/economy/economics; effective/efficient

historic

исторический, имеющий историческое значение, исторически важный, знаменательный

historic speech/visit, historic day/date, a historic place/monument/building/city; collection of historic aircraft

Our victory is a historic event for all mankind.

historical

исторически установленный; относящийся к истории, связанный с историей

historical film, historical novel, historical period, historical science

The Abbey is a major historical monument.

prehistoric

доисторический

prehistoric animals/carvings/remains/times

economic

экономический.

Используйте слово ‘economic’ для описания того, что относится к сфере экономики страны

economic activity/crisis/ development/downturn/ growth/policy/recovery/reform/ slowdown/benefits

Economic growth is slowing down.

economical

бережливый, расчетливый, экономичный, экономный

economical cars/ways/movement/person

It’s more economical to go by bus.

economy

экономичный, ресурсосберегающий, выгодный, дешевый

economy class, economy car, economy pack

economy

народное хозяйство, экономика; бережливость, расчет, экономия

a market/capitalist/planned/ black economy

The gas was turned off for reasons of economy.

economics

экономика как наука, экономическая политика

to study economics, an economics teacher

He studied economics at Glasgow University.

effective

эффективный, действующий, результативный

It’s an extremely effective cure for a headache.

She’s a very effective teacher.

efficient

работающий быстро, эффективно, результативно, организованно

The city’s transport system is one of the most efficient in Europe.

We need someone really efficient who can organize the office and make it run smoothly.

2.10. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения.

historic historical economy economics economic economical effective efficient

1. Any occurrence in the past is a __________ event.

2. The hotel’s staff are friendly and __________.

3. The US has been the world’s largest national __________ since the 1890s.

4. What’s the most __________ way of heating this building?

5. A __________ event is an important occurrence that stands out in history.

6. My brother wants to enter the Higher School of __________ in Moscow.

7. Humour is often far more __________ than shouting.

8. The country has been in a very poor __________ state in recent years.

Употребление cruise/voyage/journey/travel/trip/tour/excursion/outing

cruise

круиз, путешествие на корабле с посещением нескольких мест

She went on a cruise and visited Greece, Italy and Spain.

voyage

плавание, длительное морское путешествие; космическое путешествие

a voyage across the Atlantic

a sea/ocean/round-the-world voyage maiden voyage (=the first voyage of a ship)

He was a young sailor on his first sea voyage.

journey

поездка, путешествие из одного пункта в другой (обычно сухопутное и на транспортном средстве/часто утомительное)

a long/safe/tiring journey; a journey through time start/set out on/set off on a journey

I love going on long journeys.

Have a safe journey!

travel

путешествие (процесс)

air/space/business/foreign travel

travel agency/expenses/card/insurance

We share a love of literature, food and travel.

Travel broadens the mind.

trip

путешествие (обычно недолгое), коротка поездка, экскурсия

a business/shopping/wedding/school trip a round-the-world trip; a day trip to Paris

Do you want to go on a school trip to France?

The trip from York to Newcastle takes about an hour by train.

tour

длительное путешествие с целью осмотра достопримечательностей; гастроли; спортивное турне; политическая поездка

a guided tour/a tour guide; a world/overseas tour; a walking/coach/bus/cycling tour

A bus took us on a sightseeing tour of the city.

The Queen is making a two-week tour of Australia.

excursion

организованная экскурсия в интересное место (обычно группой людей)

a one-day excursion to the Grand Canyon

Next week we’re going on an excursion to the Museum of Modern Art.

outing

прогулка, короткая групповая поездка с развлекательной целью, пикник

a pleasant family outing; an outing to a bowling alley

2.11. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. При необходимости употребите существительные во множественном числе.

cruise voyage trip tour travel journey excursion outing

1. We went on a guided __________ of the UK.

2. The first __________ taken by the ocean liner ‘Queen Mary’ took place in 1936.

3. Foreign __________ never really appealed to him until he visited England.

4. The Australian Museum offers group __________ with professional guides.

5. She’s away on a business __________ and won’t be back until next week.

6. They used to go on family __________ to the countryside.

7. Our parents wished us a safe __________ as we drove away.

8. My parents went on a/an __________ around the Mediterranean.

Употребление pitch/field/court/course/ring/rink/judge/referee/umpire

pitch

(Br) поле, площадка

a cricket/hockey/football/rugby pitch

Supporters invaded the pitch.

field

(Am) поле, спортивная площадка (покрытая травой)

a baseball/football/rugby/soccer/ playing/sports field

The England striker left the field with a knee injury.

court

корт (площадка для игры в теннис, баскетбол и т.д)

a tennis/squash/basketball/volleyball court

The hotel has two tennis courts.

course

поле для гольфа, место проведения гонок (скаковой круг на ипподроме, гоночный круг, лыжня)

a golf course/cross-country course horses for courses

The country club has a golf course.

The race was run on the turf course.

ring

арена цирка, ринг (боксерский, для борьбы)

a boxing/wrestling ring

We manufacturer Boxing Rings and Wrestling Rings.

rink

ледовый каток

a ice/ice-hockey/skating/roller-skating rink

judge

судья (должностное лицо в суде); судья (тот, кто выносит оценку), знаток, ценитель; арбитр (на выставке, соревнованиях)

a British high-court judge; a US Supreme Court judge a panel of judges

The judge sentenced him to five years in prison.

She’s such a bad judge of character.

All entries will be examined by a panel of judges.

referee

судья в некоторых видах спортивных состязаний (футбол, рэгби); третейский судья, арбитр в споре; рекомендатель, поручитель

The referee is the sole judge of the rules.

Liverpool only lost the game because the referee was biased.

A senior judge is acting as referee in the pay dispute between the trade union and management.

She gave her college tutor as her referee to the interviewer.

umpire

судья в некоторых видах спортивных состязаний (теннис, бейсбол, крикет)

He has been chosen as an umpire for the next cricket test match.

2.12. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

pitch course

court

ring

rink

referee

umpire

judge

1. We’ve got a tennis __________ near our country house.

2. In tennis a(n) __________ is an on-court official.

3. Hundreds of boxing fans crowded around the __________ with cameras in hands.

4. A High Court __________ found him innocent.

5. What is the standard size of a football __________?

6. This skating __________ was built in 1948, making it the oldest one in the state.

7. A golf __________ consists of a series of holes.

8. A football match is presided over by a(n) __________, who has authority to make decisions about the game.

Употребление prescription/recipe/human/humane/treat/cure/heal

prescription

рецепт врача, предписание

a doctor’s prescription; a prescription for sedatives

These drugs are only available on prescription.

recipe

кулинарный рецепт; готовый рецепт чего-либо, верный способ сделать что-то

Do you know a good recipe for wholemeal bread?

be a recipe for disaster/trouble/success

Large-scale inflation is a recipe for disaster.

human

человеческий, свойственный человеку

a human life/body/remains/being/error

The human body is composed of about 60% water.

humane

гуманный, человечный; гуманитарный

The humane way of dealing with a suffering animal is to kill it quickly.

treat

проводить курс лечения; обращаться с кем-либо; обсуждать, решать проблему

He is being treated for a rare skin disease.

He treated his wife very badly.

Please treat this matter as urgent.

cure

излечивать,исцелять

In the past doctors couldn’t cure tuberculosis/cure people of tuberculosis.

heal

заживать (о ранах и травмах); лечить после травмы; вылечивать, исцелять нетрадиционными методами

The wounds were gradually healing (up).

A broken heart takes a long time to heal.

Vitamin K is needed for healing cuts.

the healing properties of plants

2.13. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. Поставьте, если необходимо, глаголы в правильную форму.

prescription recipe human humane cure heal treat (2)

1. My parents __________ us all the same when we were kids.

2. A __________ brain is much bigger than that of a chimpanzee.

3. Doctors have learned to __________ many formerly fatal diseases.

4. Could you give me a __________ for your apple pie?

5. I don’t support the death penalty because it is not __________ to kill people.

6. In this hospital patients are __________ with a combination of medication and exercise.

7. The doctor gave me a __________ for a new medicine.

8. My wound has already __________.

Употребление sincere, honest, outspoken; sensibie/sensitive; annoyed/anxious/frustrated/nervous

sincere

чистосердечный, искренний: искренний человек говорит и поступает так, как думает

Не is a modest and sincere man.

sincere apologies

honest

честный, подлинный: честный человек никогда не лжет и соблюдает законы

Most young people are decent and honest.

honest opinion/answer/mistake

the honest truth

to be honest with sb

to earn an honest living

outspoken

искренний, откровенный, открытый: откровенный человек открыто высказывает свое мнение, даже если другим это не нравиться

an outspoken critic of the government

The outspoken activist protested the budget cuts.

annoyed

недовольный, раздосадованный, раздраженный

She was annoyed with the children.

He was annoyed at the way she tried to take over the whole meeting.

My parents were rather annoyed (that) I hadn’t told them about the accident.

anxious

беспокоящийся, озабоченный, потому что может случиться что-либо плохое; сильно желающий сделать что-либо

an anxious glance

My mother always gets a bit anxious if we are late.

The drought has made farmers anxious about the harvest.

I’m anxious to get home to open my presents.

frustrated

расстроенный, недовольный из-за невозможности достичь желаемого; отчаявшийся из-за чего-либо; удрученный чем-либо; безуспешный

frustrated at/with smth

He gets so frustrated at not being able to do things for himself any more.

Are you feeling frustrated in your present job?

Frustrated writers often end up in publishing.

nervous

нервничающий (взволнованный и слегка напуганный предстоящим); нервный, относящийся к нервной системе

Do you feel/get nervous during exams?

I was too nervous to speak.

I was very nervous about driving again after the accident.

He suffers from a nervous disorder.

sensible

благоразумный, разумный

It was sensible of her to put off her holiday.

sensitive

чувствительный, ранимый, впечатлительный; чуткий, восприимчивый

Laura is very sensitive to criticism.

He is very sensitive to the needs of the disabled.

2.14. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения.

sincere honest outspoken annoyed

frustrated nervous sensible sensitive

1. My sister has got a very __________ skin.

2. __________ people get into trouble because they speak before they think.

3. Some parents get very __________ at the inability to control their children.

4. I want to express my __________ apologies for what I said.

5. My parents were rather __________ that I hadn’t done my homework.

6. It’s a very __________ way of dealing with this problem.

7. Do you get __________ during exams?

8. To be __________, I don’t think it’s a good idea to invite my cousin to stay with us.

Употребление affect/effect; ensure/insure/make sure; property/ownership/possessions/belongings

affect

наносить вред, ущерб; оказывать воздействие, влиять; волновать, затрагивать

Both buildings were badly affected by the fire.

The divorce affected every aspect of her life.

I was deeply affected by the film.

effect

результат, следствие, эффект; влияние, воздействие

to have/produce an effect

I tried taking tablets for the headache but they didn’t have any effect.

ensure

обеспечивать, гарантировать

The airline is taking steps to ensure safety on its aircraft.

insure

страховать, застраховывать

The house is insured for two million pounds against accidental damage.

make sure

убедиться, удостовериться

Make sure you lock the door when you go out.

property

имущество, собственность (вещи, земля, здания)

Personal/private property, intellectual property

The notice said ‘Private Property, Keep Off.’

ownership

собственность, владение, право собственности

Do you have any proof of ownership of/for this car?

Rates of home ownership have remained relatively constant.

possessions

имущество, личные вещи

Please remember to take all your personal possessions with you when you leave the plane.

treasured/precious possession

belongings

имущество, личные вещи, пожитки

I put a few personal belongings in a bag and left the house for the last time.

2.15. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. Поставьте, если необходимо, глаголы в правильную форму.

property ownership possession belongings affect effect ensure insure make sure

1. The government must __________ the protection of endangered species.

2. Air pollution has a disastrous __________ on people’s health.

3. What is your most treasured __________?

4. I think I’ve locked the door but you’d better make __________.

5. British __________ of this company was formally recognized.

6. Industrial waste badly __________ our environment.

7. The sign said, ‘Private __________ No Trespassing.’

8. We have __________ our house against flood damage.

9. He had few personal __________.

Употребление remember/remind/revision/review; accident/incident/occasion/occurrence

remember

помнить, хранить в памяти; вспоминать, припоминать;

не забыть сделать что-либо; передавать привет кому-либо

I can remember people’s faces, but not their names.

Did you remember to do the shopping?

Please remember me to your parents.

remind

напомнить, сделать напоминание (about sth/to do sth); (of) напоминать, быть похожим

Could you remind Paul about dinner on Saturday?

Your hair and eyes remind me of your mother.

review

обзор, обозрение; критическая статья, рецензия на фильм/книгу

Several aspects of environmental policy are currently under review.

The play got excellent reviews when it was first seen.

revision

исправление, переработка; повторение, подготовка к экзамену

He was forced to make several revisions to his speech.

She did no revision, but she still got a very high mark at the exam.

occasion

возможность, случай, шанс; происшествие, случай; важное событие

We met on several occasions to discuss the issue.

The coronation of a new king is, of course, a historic occasion.

incident

случай, происшествие (часто неприятное или необычное), инцидент

funny/curious/unpleasant/strange/incident

A teenager was seriously injured in a shooting incident on Saturday night.

accident

несчастный случай, катастрофа, авария

She was injured in a car/ road accident by accident = случайно

occurrence

явление, случай; частота, распространенность

common/daily/everyday/frequent/rare/occurrence

Unfortunately, computer errors are a common occurrence.

The occurrence of cancer increases with age.

2.16. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. Поставьте, если необходимо, существительные во множественное число.

accident incident occasion occurrence

review revision remember remind

1. I __________ buying this book. However, I can’t find it anywhere.

2. He was killed in a car __________.

3. I had no __________ to speak to him.

4. We have absolutely no time for __________ before our exams.

5. Street-fights are an everyday __________ in this area of the city.

6. Please __________ me to buy this book when we are in the shop.

7. Every time I think of this funny __________, I can’t help laughing.

8. Roger writes film __________ for the newspapers.

Употребление lend/borrow; receipt/cheque/cash/change; spend/waste

lend

одалживать, давать взаймы

She lent the money to him.

borrow

занимать деньги; брать что-либо на время

You could borrow some money from your uncle.

He borrowed a novel from the library.

receipt

квитанция; товарный, кассовый чек

Make sure you are given a receipt for everything you buy.

cheque

банковский чек на получение денег

a bad cheque; to cash a cheque; a cheque card

I wrote him a cheque for £50.

I don’t have any cash on me, so could I pay with a/by cheque?

cash

наличные деньги

Do you want to pay in cash or by credit card?

change

сдача; мелкие деньги, мелочь

Here’s your change.

I’m sorry I haven’t got any change.

spend

тратить, расходовать деньги; проводить время

We’ve just spent £2 million on improving our computer network.

He spent a weekend in London.

waste

тратить впустую; терять даром

She wastes money on gambling.

2.17. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. Поставьте, если необходимо, глаголы и существительные в правильную форму.

lend borrow receipt cheque cash change spend waste

1. It’s important to be able to __________ money wisely.

2. Sorry, I don’t have any cash now. Can I pay by __________?

3. Have you got __________ for a twenty-dollar bill?

4. She really __________ money buying loads of clothes.

5. If you need money, I can __________ you $200.

6. Do you have any __________ on you?

7. He always paid by credit card and kept the __________.

8. She used to __________ money from her brother.

Употребление wage/salary/income/royalty; commission/perks/bonuses; staff/team/crew

wage(s)

сдельная заработная плата (рабочих, официантов), обычно выплачивается еженедельно

an hourly/daily/weekly wage

He gets/earns a good wage, because he works for a fair employer.

The smaller shops pay very low wages.

salary

жалованье, заработная плата (служащего); оклад

an annual salary of £20,000

His net monthly salary is £1,500.

income

доход, прибыль (от выполненной работы или капиталовложений)

annual/monthly/net/fixed/taxable income

More help is needed for people on low incomes.

royalty

авторский гонорар (писателям, музыкантам, изобретателям), роялти

Royalties are paid to the patent owner in exchange for a licence.

com

mission

комиссия, комиссионное вознаграждение — форма оплаты труда для тех, кто продает товар или услуги — процент от продажи

Is she paid a regular wage or is it on/by commission only?

She gets a 15% commission on every machine she sells.

perk

льгота или привилегия, получаемые при определённой должности на работе (бесплатный автомобиль или телефон); преимущество

A company car and a mobile phone are some of the perks that come with the job.

Having such easy access to some of the best cinema and theatre is one of the perks of living in Sydney.

bonus

премия, награда, приз; дополнительное преимущество

Customers will receive a free tape as a bonus with any order over £30.

I love the job, and it’s an added bonus that it’s so close to home.

benefit

выгода, польза, прибыль; преимущество; пенсия, пособие

The discovery of oil brought many benefits to the town.

unemployment/housing/sickness/ disability benefit;

I’m on benefit at the moment.

team

спортивная команда; команда как группа лиц, выполняющих одну работу и действующих согласовано; коллектив

a basketball/hockey/cricket/football team

home/visiting/national/rival team

a team of investigators/editors team

to work in a team

It was a real team effort-everyone contributed something to the success of the project.

crew

судовая команда, экипаж (корабля, самолета); съемочная группа

an ambulance/lifeboat crew

a TV/film/camera crew

The aircraft has a crew of seven.

staff

штат служащих в организации; служебный персонал; личный состав; кадры; штаты

It is a small hospital with a staff of just over a hundred.

He is on (= a member of) the editorial staff of the magazine.

2.18. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. При необходимости поставьте существительные во множественное число.

wage salary commission perks

bonuses team crew staff

1. Free meals are one of the __________ of this job.

2. Cruise ships resemble giant floating hotels employing thousands of __________ members.

3. __________ on sales is a traditional way for companies to pay their sales reps.

4. There is a good relationship between __________ and pupils at the school.

5. His monthly __________ is £500.

6. They are the worst __________ in baseball.

7. We receive annual __________ at the end of the year.

8. What’s the starting hourly __________ for a waiter at Olive Garden?

Употребление valuable/invaluable/valueless/priceless; skills/qualities/experience/qualifications

valuable

ценный, дорогостоящий; ценный, полезный

Gold is more valuable than silver.

It’s extremely valuable to know foreign languages.

invaluable

бесценный, неоценимый, важный

The new job will provide you with invaluable experience.

Such data will prove invaluable to/for researchers.

valueless

ничего не стоящий, не имеющий ценности, бесполезный

We thought the chair was an antique worth a lot of money, but it turned out to be a valueless replica.

His comments were so general as to be nearly valueless.

priceless

бесценный, неоценимый

A priceless collection of vases was destroyed.

Her knowledge and experience would make her a priceless (= extremely useful) asset to the team.

skills

навыки, умения

The course helped me to gain necessary speaking skills.

qualities

качества, свойства

personal/leadership qualities

Do you possess the right personal qualities to be a teacher?

qualifications

диплом, аттестат, степень, удостоверение

Simon left school with no qualifications.

experience

опыт; случай, событие; впечатления

get/gain experience in sth

You don’t need any experience to work here.

I had a bad experience in the last place I worked.

2.19. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. Поставьте, если необходимо, существительные во множественное число.

valuable (2) invaluable valueless priceless skills qualities qualification experience

1. This collection of manuscripts is not very __________.

2. Ron had great writing __________.

3. I don’t want to sell this antique furniture. I think it’s __________.

4. We decided not to buy that painting because it was absolutely __________.

5. She has years of __________ in the computer industry.

6. The results of this research will be extremely __________ for medicine.

7. His personal __________ made him a strong leader.

8. The Internet is an __________ resource for students.

9. Gregory finished special courses and got recognized __________ in design.

Употребление discover/detect/invent/explore/develop; investigation/research/survey

discover

обнаружить, найти или выяснить что-либо в первый раз

We had been looking for the missing papers all morning and finally discovered them in a drawer.

detect

обнаружить, выявить, заметить (то, что с трудом различимо)

to detect a target/ leak/defect/fault

Financial experts have detected signs that the economy is beginning to improve.

I thought I detected a hint of irony in her words.

invent

изобрести, создать что-то новое; выдумывать, сочинять, измышлять

The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.

But I didn’t invent the story — everything I told you is true.

explore

исследовать, изучать; пробовать, экспериментировать

The children have gone exploring the island.

Let’s explore this issue/idea more fully.

develop

развивать(ся), совершенствовать(ся), расти

This country is rapidly developing its tourist industry.

investigation

расследование (преступления, обстоятельств), следствие

a thorough investigation of the incident

Currently, the individuals who might have caused the accident are subject to/under investigation.

research

научное исследование, изучение, исследовательская работа

scientific/medical research a research student/assistant/laboratory

They are carrying out/conducting/doing some fascinating research into/on the language of dolphins.

survey

опрос, анкетирование, обзор, инспекция

A recent survey found/revealed/showed that 58% of people did not know where their heart is.

to conduct/carry out/do a survey

tool

инструмент, орудие труда; средство

kitchen/gardening/dental/machine tools a set of tools

Words are essential tools for formulating and communicating thoughts.

appliance

аппарат, прибор, приспособление, устройство, бытовые электроприборы

household/kitchen appliances

We stock a wide range of domestic appliances, including fridges and dishwashers.

domestic electric appliances

gadget

приспособление, принадлежность (о технической новинке)

kitchen gadgets

This expensive car is full of gadgets.

equipment

оборудование, оснащение

office/camping/safety/kitchen equipment electrical equipment

A computer is the most important piece of equipment you will buy.

2.20. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. Поставьте, если необходимо, глаголы в правильную форму.

discover invent explore develop investigation research tools appliances equipment

1. Our scientific laboratory has got the latest __________. Now it is really modern.

2. The best way to __________ the countryside is on foot.

3. This crime is still under __________ by the police.

4. Thomas Edison __________ the phonograph.

5. All household __________ are now on sale in this shop.

6. The island has __________ its economy around tourism.

7. The group carries out __________ in the field of geochemistry.

8. Everyone knows that Christopher Columbus __________ America.

9. You need contemporary gardening __________ to keep your garden in good condition.

Употребление electric/electrical; eligible/illegible; technical/technological/technology/techniques

electric

электрический, работающий на электричестве; используемый для переноса электричества; относящийся к электричеству; наэлектризованный, возбужденный

an electric blanket/car/kettle/light

an electric drill/razor/toothbrush

an electric socket/plug/cable

an electric current

an electric performance

The atmosphere here tonight is absolutely electric.

electrical

электрический, работающий на электричестве; относящийся к электричеству

electrical equipment/goods/devices

an electrical fuse/circuit/fault

an electrical engineer/engineering

The fire was caused by an electrical fault.

eligible

имеющий право; годный, пригодный, подходящий;

Only people over 18 are eligible to vote.

You might be eligible for a grant.

illegible

неразборчивый, нечеткий

His writing is almost illegible.

technical

технический, относящийся к технике; индустриальный, промышленный; техничный, хорошо исполненный

a technical problem/hitch/glitch/fault

technical support/expert/college

The job requires someone with specialized scientific and technical knowledge.

In her performance as the Snow Queen she showed great technical brilliance.

techno

logical

технологический, относящийся к новым технологиям

technological progress/advances/change

Technological advances in telecommunications will reduce the need for many people to travel to work.

technology

технология; современная техника; технические науки

high technology/information technology

Modern technology is amazing, isn’t it?

What this country needs is a long-term policy for investment in science and technology.

technique

техника, технические приемы; метод, методика, приемы

acting/ dance/relaxation technique

statistical/analytical/surgical techniques

We have developed a new technique for detecting errors.

2.21. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения.

eligible illegible electric electrical technical technological technology techniques

1. The pianist gave an __________ performance.

2. Recent advances in medical __________ have saved countless lives.

3. We learned some __________ for relieving stress.

4. Are you __________ for early retirement leave?

5. You can’t stop __________ progress even if you want to do it.

6. __________ engineers design new and better electronics.

7. If you have any problems with your new computer, we offer 24-hour __________ support.

8. Megan’s handwriting is absolutely __________!

Употребление pitch/voice/vocal; classic/classical; convenient/comfortable/suitable

pitch

музыкальный слух; высота тона, звука

absolute/perfect pitch

She sings well since she’s got perfect pitch.

The piano and organ were tuned to the same pitch (= note).

voice

голос; способность петь, говорить

in a low/deep/bored voice

a low-pitched/high-pitched voice

She has a loud/quiet/soft voice.

She lowered her voice to a whisper.

vocal

вокальная партия в музыкальном произведении, песня; вокал, пение

Who is on backing vocals?

The vocals are shared by two members of the band.

classical

классический, относящийся к классическому стилю в музыке, литературе, живописи, образовании

the classical world

classical music/composers

classical art/literature/mythology

Do you enjoy classical music or pop music?

classic

типичный; строгий, традиционный; высококачественный

He had all the classic symptoms of flu.

She wore a classic navy suit.

convenient

удобный, не вызывающий затруднений, подходящий

Our local shop has very convenient opening hours.

A bike’s a very convenient way of getting around.

comfortable

уютный, удобный, комфортабельный

a comfortable bed/sofa/shoes/trousers

I don’t feel comfortable in high heels.

Do sit down and make yourself comfortable.

suitable

годный, подходящий, пригодный, применимый, соответствующий

The film is suitable for children.

My mother doesn’t let me wear short skirts to church — she doesn’t think they’re suitable.

2.22. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения.

pitch voice vocal classical classic convenient comfortable suitable

1. Are you __________ enough in this chair?

2. Can I remove the __________ from a recording to make a Karaoke track?

3. If it’s __________, call me tomorrow before noon.

4. She plays the piano and she has absolute __________.

5. Hamlet is a __________ example of a tragedy.

6. These toys are not __________ for children under five.

7. I’ve got a cold and I think I’m losing my __________. I can’t talk at all.

8. I don’t mind listening to __________ music.

Употребление opportunity/possibility; collect/pick/gather; specially/especially

opportunity

удобный случай, благоприятная возможность; шанс, возможность, перспектива

equal opportunities

I’d like to take this opportunity to thank all of you for coming.

I was never given the opportunity of going to college.

possibility

вероятность, возможность того, что что-либо произойдет; возможность сделать что-либо

The forecast said that there’s a possibility of snow tonight.

‘Have you decided what to do?’ ‘No, I’m still considering various possibilities.’

specially

особенно (очень); специально; нарочно

This is a specially good wine.

These coats are specially treated to be water repellent.

especially

особенно, в особенности

She’s not especially interested in sport.

It was a very cold house, especially in winter.

pick

собирать руками, снимать, срывать, поднимать; отбирать, набирать в группу

The spent the summer picking strawberries.

The following season he was picked for the national team.

collect

собирать; коллекционировать

A lot of families collect newspapers for recycling.

He collects stamps.

gather

собирать (искать и находить), копить; собираться

Our report is based on information gathered from all parts of the country.

A crowd had gathered to hear her speak.

2.23. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Поставьте, если необходимо, глаголы и существительные в правильную форму.

opportunity possibility collect pick gather specially especially

1. When did you start __________ stamps?

2. She has got a wheelchair that was __________ made for her.

3. One __________ for the weekend is to rent a car and go to the beach.

4. Football fans __________ around the TV in the corner of the bar and watched the match.

5. Young people, __________ teenagers, enjoy extreme sports.

6. Modern machines can __________ the fruit from the trees.

7. People have more leisure __________ nowadays.

8. I went to several libraries to __________ information about my hobby.

Употребление audience/viewer/spectator/cast; refuse/deny; been in/been to/gone to

audience

публика, зрители (в театре/ кино, на концерте/лекции); телезрители, радиослушатели как целевая аудитория

sympathetic/enthusiastic/cold/responsive audience

The audience was/were clearly delighted with the performance.

The series has attracted an audience of more than 10 million.

viewer

зритель, наблюдатель, свидетель; теле/кинозритель

А painting showing a woman looking directly at the viewer.

Millions of viewers will be glued to their sets for this match.

spectator

зритель, посетитель зрелищных (спортивных) мероприятий

The final game attracted a crowd of over 50,000 spectators.

cast

состав исполнителей (в спектакле, фильме)

Part of the film’s success lies in the strength of the supporting cast (= the actors who are not playing the main parts).

refuse

отвергать, отказаться сделать что-либо

On cold mornings the car always refuses to start.

deny

отрицать что сделал что-либо; отвергать, не признавать существования чего-либо; отказать кому- либо в чём-либо

to deny categorically/flatly/strongly

He denies committing fraud.

It is hard to deny that Bob is a good man.

Her request for time off work was denied.

have/has been to

побывал где-либо и вернулся

My father has been to London twice this year. I don’t think he’ll go there again.

have/has gone to

уехал куда-либо и ещё не вернулся

Mr. Smith has gone to London. I think he’ll be back in a week.

have/has been in

находится где-либо в течение некоторого времени

Mr. Smith has already been in London for three days.

2.24. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. Поставьте, если необходимо, глаголы и существительные в правильную форму.

refuse deny audience viewer spectator cast been in been to gone to

1. After the final performance, the director threw a party for the __________.

2. She is a regular __________ of the evening news.

3. My English pen friend has __________ Moscow for two days only so he hasn’t seen much yet.

4. The concert attracted a large __________.

5. The postman was accused of stealing money from the post office but he __________ everything.

6. We can have a party tomorrow as my parents have __________ London on a business trip.

7. The __________ lining the road cheered the racers on.

8. He offered to paint my house, but I __________ to hire him.

9. We have already __________ Great Britain. Let’s travel to the USA.

Употребление lone/lonely/alone; suit/fit/match; room/space

suit

подходить, идти, быть к лицу

This dress looks nice. It really suits you!

fit

быть впору, в самый раз, подходить по размеру

I like the suit, but the jacket doesn’t fit me. It’s too big.

match

подходить по цвету и форме, гармонировать; подходить под пару

She wore a green dress and a hat to match.

This glove matches the one that was found at the crime scene.

alone

один (одни), без других людей; сам, в одиночку, без посторонней помощи

She was all alone in a dark forest.

Was the killer acting alone?

lonely

одинокий, страдающий от одиночества

She has no friends so she feels lonely.

lone

одинокий, единственный; уединенный; замкнутый, предпочитающий одиночество

a lone house in the Berkshire moors

room

комната; место, пространство, площадь, необходимые для определенной цели

a spare/private/rest room

She’s upstairs in her room.

There isn’t much room in here.

Is there room for one more in your car?

There was just enough room for them all to sit down.

This table takes up too much room.

space

свободное доступное пространство; пустота, космос; интервал времени, промежуток; расстояние между двумя точками, пробел

empty/parking/storage space

I’ve got to make space for Mark’s things.

He was absent-mindedly staring into space.

I love the wide open spaces (= large areas of countryside) of central Australia.

2.25. Вставьте слова из рамки в предложения. Глаголы необходимо поставить в правильную форму.

suit fit match alone lonely lone space room

1. We replaced the bath with a shower to create more __________.

2. She gets __________ now that all her friends have left the village.

3. This suit is the right size for you. It __________ you perfectly.

4. She __________ must decide what to do. No one else can do it for her.

5. There was a large empty __________ on the second floor.

6. Does this shirt __________ these trousers?

7. Police spokesman said that a/an __________ gunman was responsible for the shooting.

8. You should wear more red. This colour __________ you very well.





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