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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018

Раздел ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Задания 26-31

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК ПО СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Суффиксы существительных

Суффиксы, образующие существительные, могут прибавляться к разным частям речи: прилагательным, глаголам и существительным. Прежде всего, следует запомнить, какие суффиксы могут прибавляться к той или иной части речи.

Невозможно запомнить все существительные. Поэтому целесообразнее выучить окончания слов, к которым прибавляется определённый суффикс. Кроме того, следует обратить внимание на исключения, а также на орфографические правила прибавления суффиксов.

Для более лёгкого усвоения весь материал разбит на три таблицы. После каждой таблицы даны тесты для формирования практических навыков словообразования. В заключение приведены комплексные тесты в формате ЕГЭ, в которых требуется образовать необходимое по смыслу существительное, а также решить в каком числе (единственном или множественном) оно употреблено.

Суффиксы -ness и -ty/-ity

Суффикс

Образование

Примеры

Прилагательные

Существительные

+ -ness

прилагательные + -ness

aware,

dark,

fit,

dry,

great,

good,

ill,

idle,

kind,

mad,

polite,

red,

rich,

rude,

sad,

selfish,

shy,

sick,

sweet,

weak, etc.

awareness,

fitness,

darkness,

dryness,

greatness,

goodness,

illness,

idleness,

kindness,

madness,

politeness,

redness,

richness,

rudeness,

sadness,

selfishness,

shyness,

sickness,

sweetness,

weakness, etc

attentive,

attractive,

effective

attentiveness,

attractiveness,

effectiveness

В двусложных прилагательных, -yпосле согласной → -i

busy,

happy,

empty,

lazy,

lonely,

ready,

sleepy,

tidy,

ugly

business,

happiness,

emptiness,

laziness,

loneliness,

readiness,

sleepiness,

tidiness,

ugliness

+ -(t)y

прилагательные + -ty

sovereign,

(un)certain

sovereignty,

(un)certainty

safe,

nice

safety,

nicety

(dis)loyal,

penal,

royal,

special

(dis)loyalty,

penalty,

royalty,

specialty (Am)

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -t + -y

(dis)honest,

modest

(dis)honesty,

modesty

difficult

difficulty

Исключения

poor

poverty

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ous

anxious,

various

anxiety,

variety

curious,

generous,

religious

curiosity,

generosity,

religiosity

прилагательные + -ity

elastic,

electric,

public

elasticity,

electricity,

publicity

humid,

stupid,

valid

humidity,

stupidity,

validity

major,

minor,

superior

majority,

minority,

superiority

popular,

similar,

regular

popularity,

similarity,

regularity

Christian,

(in)human

Christianity,

(in)humanity

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -al + -ity

abnormal,

equal,

fatal,

formal,

functional,

local,

moral,

mortal,

national,

personal,

real,

special,

vital,

universal

abnormality,

equality,

fatality,

formality,

functionality,

locality,

morality,

mortality,

nationality,

personality,

reality,

speciality (Br),

vitality,

universality

Исключения -al→ -ity

eternal,

fraternal,

maternal

eternity,

fraternity,

maternity

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ble, изменяют -ble→ -bil + -ity

able,

admissible,

flexible,

available,

capable,

stable,

gullible,

possible,

visible,

probable,

profitable,

reliable,

respectable,

responsible,

suitable

ability,

admissibility,

flexibility,

availability,

capability,

stability,

gullibility,

possibility,

visibility,

probability,

profitability,

reliability,

respectability,

responsibility,

suitability

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -e, изменяют -e → -ity

active,

captive,

creative,

productive,

relative

activity,

captivity,

creativity,

productivity,

relativity

false,

dense,

diverse,

immense,

intense,

obese

falsity,

density,

diversity,

immensity,

intensity,

obesity

fragile,

hostile,

mobile

fragility,

hostility,

mobility

mediocre,

scarce

mediocrity,

scarcity

mature,

pure,

secure,

obscure,

severe,

sincere

maturity,

purity,

security,

obscurity,

severity,

sincerity

Исключения

simple,

hospitable

simplicity,

hospitality

+ -(i)ty

в некоторых случаях суффикс -(i)ty может прибавляться к глаголу

celebrate,

liquidate,

necessitate

celebrity,

liquidity,

necessity

liberate

liberty

clarify,

identify,

qualify,

quantify

clarity,

identity,

quality,

quantity

3.1. Образуйте существительные, используя суффиксы -ness и -i(ty).

1. ugly

2. stupid

3. diverse

4. dry

5. aware

6. formal

7. visible

8. major

9. lazy

10. capable

11. sleepy

12. curious

13. weak

14. anxious

15. hospitable

3.2. Образуйте существительные, используя суффиксы ness и -i(ty).

1. equal

2. sad

3. royal

4. obese

5. busy

6. safe

7. able

8. empty

9. liberate

10. similar

11. shy

12. modest

13. active

14. humid

15. reliable

3.3. Образуйте существительные, используя суффиксы -ness и -i(ty).

1. scarce

2. sweet

3. simple

4. dishonest

5. attentive

6. good

7. penal

8. empty

9. hostile

10. kind

11. ill

12. electric

13. regular

14. red

15. difficult

3.4. Заполните пропуски существительными, образованными от слов, напечатанных в конце строк заглавными буквами.

1. Jessica has a very pleasant _____________.

2. Being a _____________ has its own pros and cons.

3. _____________ is often a sign of weak character.

4. The protection of the environment is everyone’s _____________.

5. _____________ is an unpleasant feeling.

6. While some countries get richer, the _____________ in others get worse.

7. People complain about the lack of _____________ in modern writers.

8. Running marathons requires a high level of physical _____________.

9. I love autumn because of the _____________ of its colours.

10. Rooms are offered subject to _____________.

PERSONAL

CELEBRATE

RUDE

RESPONSIBLE

LONELY

POOR

CREATIVE

FIT

RICH

AVAILABLE

Суффиксы -ist, -ism, -ship, -dom, -hood, -ian

Суффикс

Образование

Примеры

Существительные/прилагательные

Существительные

+ -ist

существительные + -ist

art, capital, career, journal, moral, medal, motor, novel, reception, terror, tour, vocal

artist, capitalist, careerist, journalist, moralist, medal(l)ist, motorist, novelist, receptionist, terrorist, tourist, vocalist

буква -y на конце существительного изменяется на -ist

anarchy, archaeology, biology, botany, diary, ecology, economy, meteorology, monarchy, psychology, psychiatry, strategy, theory, zoology

anarchist, archaeologist, biologist, botanist, diarist, ecologist, economist, meteorologist, monarchist, psychologist, psychiatrist, strategist, theorist, zoologist

-eна конце → -ist

cycle, race, style, type

cyclist, racist, stylist, typist

исключения

drama, chemistry, physics, piano, science

dramatist, chemist, physicist, pianist, scientist

+ -ist

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -al + -ist

educational, federal, environmental, final, material, national, real, social, special, traditional

educationalist, federalist, environmentalist, finalist, materialist, nationalist, realist, socialist, specialist, traditionalist

-eна конце → -ist

active, collective

activist, collectivist

+ -ism

существительные + -ism

capital, critic, despot, ideal, journal, organ, patriot, terror, tour

capitalism, criticism, despotism, idealism, journalism, organism, patriotism, terrorism, tourism

-eна конце → -ism

commune, future, race

communism, futurism, racism

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -al

central, fatal, federal, material, national, real, social

centralism, fatalism, federalism, materialism, nationalism, realism, socialism

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -e, на конце прибавляют -ism

absolute, collective, positive, relative

absolutism, collectivism, positivism, relativism

+ -ship

существительные + -ship

champion, citizen, companion, fellow, friend, leader, member, owner, partner, relation, reader, scholar, sponsor

championship, citizenship, companionship, fellowship, friendship, leadership, membership, ownership, partnership, relationship, readership, scholarship, sponsorship

прилагательные + -ship

hard

hardship

+ -hood

существительные + -hood

adult, boy, brother, child, father, girl, knight, man, mother, neighbour, parent, woman

adulthood, boyhood, brotherhood, childhood, fatherhood, girlhood, knighthood, manhood, motherhood, neighbourhood, parenthood, womanhood

прилагательные + -hood

likely, lively

likelihood, livelihood

+ -ian

существительные + -ian

academic, Christ, electric, magic, music, mathematic

academician, Christian, electrician, magician, musician, mathematician

-yна конце → -ian

comedy, history, veterinary

comedian, historian, veterinarian

прилагательные + -ian

optic, politic

optician, politician

+ -dom

cуществительные + -dom

bore, king

boredom, kingdom

прилагательные + -dom

free, wise

freedom, wisdom

3.5. Образуйте существительные, используя суффиксы -dom, -ian, -ship, -hood, -ist.

1. hard

2. art

3. educational

4. optic

5. botany

6. terror

7. reader

8. meteorology

9. motor

10. leader

11. cycle

12. brother

13. final

14. veterinary

15. chemistry

3.6. Образуйте существительные, используя суффиксы -dom, -ian, -ship, -hood, -ist.

1. real

2. music

3. national

4. member

5. medal

6. drama

7. psychiatry

8. race

9. companion

10. active

11. wise

12. reception

13. knight

14. diary

15. friend

3.7. Образуйте существительные, используя суффиксы -dom, -ian, -ship, -hood, -ist.

1. physics

2. social

3. scholar

4. material

5. likely

6. ecology

7. electric

8. monarchy

9. tour

10. vocal

11. owner

12. capital

13. style

14. bore

15. psychology

3.8. Заполните пропуски существительными, образованными от слов, напечатанных в конце строк заглавными буквами.

1. I have applied for British ____________.

2. ____________ are trying to find another Earth in the endless universe.

3. ____________ joined their efforts to ensure peace on the planet.

4. Leo Tolstoy is one of the famous Russian ____________.

5. Regular outings contribute to a sense of ____________ among co-workers.

6. A ____________ is a country ruled by a king or a queen.

7. ____________ are predicting rapid inflation.

8. I’m a very sociable person. I’ve got good ____________ with my classmates.

9. Our team won the national ____________ last year.

10. Tracy is a talented ____________ who will add a touch of grace to any event.

CITIZEN

SCIENCE

POLITIC

NOVEL

FELLOW

KING

ECONOMY

RELATION

CHAMPION

PIANO

Суффиксы -er/-or, -ance/-ence, -tion/-sion, -ment, -y, -ing

Суффикс

Образование

Примеры

Исходное слово

Существительные

+ -er

глаголы + -er

box, build, buy, call, camp, clean, climb, command, cook, defend, design, develop, dream, drink, dry, earn, employ, entertain, export, fight, extinguish, farm, fly, found, golf, heat, hunt, jump, interview, keep, kill, lead, listen, murder, offend, open, own, paint, play, plumb, perform, poach, present, print, publish, read, record, remind, report, research, sell, sharpen, sing, ski, sleep, speak, start, suffer, talk, teach, tell, train, view, walk, work

boxer, builder, buyer, caller, camper, cleaner, climber, commander, cooker, defender, designer, developer, dreamer, drinker, dryer, earner, employer, entertainer, exporter, fighter, extinguisher, farmer, flyer, founder, golfer, heater, hunter, jumper, interviewer, keeper, killer, leader, listener, murderer, offender, opener, owner, painter, player, plumber, performer, poacher, presenter, printer, publisher, reader, recorder, reminder, reporter, researcher, seller, sharpener, singer, skier, sleeper, speaker, starter, sufferer, talker, teacher, teller, trainer, viewer, walker, worker

-е на конце → -er

adventure, advertise, advise (Br), bake, commute, compose, compute, consume, dive, dance, decode, drive, erase, examine, explore, fertilise, freeze, lecture, make, manage, mine, manufacture, observe, pipe, organize, produce, rule, provide, receive, rescue, shake, smoke, use, strike, vote, write

adventurer, advertiser, adviser, baker, commuter, composer, computer, consumer, diver, dancer, decoder, driver, eraser, examiner, explorer, fertiliser, freezer, lecturer, maker, manager, miner, manufacturer, observer, piper, organizer, producer, ruler, provider, receiver, rescuer, shaker, smoker, user, striker, voter, writer

согласная буква на конце, стоящая после ударной гласной, удваивается + er

babysit, begin, cut, jog, kidnap, plan, program, rob, rub, run, scan, shop, stop, swim, trim, win

babysitter, beginner, cutter, jogger, kidnapper, planner, programmer, robber, rubber, runner, scanner, shopper, stopper, swimmer, trimmer, winner

-l на конце удваивается (Br)

control, propel, travel

controller, propeller, traveller

-y после согласной →-i- + -er

dry, fly, occupy, modify, supply, worry

drier, flier, occupier, modifier, supplier, worrier

существительные + -er

bank, football, garden, pension, prison

banker, footballer, gardener, pensioner, prisoner

-eна конце → -er

game, office, village

gamer, officer, villager

-ryна конце → -er

carpentry, ministry

carpenter, minister

-phyна конце → -er

biography, geography, philosophy, photography

biographer, geographer, philosopher, photographer

Исключения

law

lawyer

+ -or

глаголы + -or

govern, invent, invest, sail, sculpt

governor, inventor, investor, sailor, sculptor

-l на конце удваивается (Br)

counsel

counsellor

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ct + -or

abduct, act, collect, conduct, connect, construct, detect, direct, elect, extract, inspect, instruct, predict, project, react, reflect, select

abductor, actor, collector, conductor, connector, constructor, detector, director, elector, extractor, inspector, instructor, predictor, projector, reactor, reflector, selector

двусложные глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ess + -or

assess, compress, confess, oppress, possess, process, profess, success, suppress

assessor, compressor, confessor, oppressor, possessor, processor, professor, successor, suppressor

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -it + -or

audit, credit, deposit, edit, exhibit, inherit, visit

auditor, creditor, depositor, editor, exhibitor, inheritor, visitor

глагол + -vise, -e- →-or

advise (Am), supervise

advisor (Am), supervisor

глагол + -ute, -e→ -or

contribute, distribute, execute, prosecute

contributor, distributor, executor, prosecutor

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ate, -e- → -or

accelerate, accumulate, administrate, animate, calculate, commentate, create, coordinate, decorate, dictate, educate, elevate, escalate, generate, illustrate, indicate, investigate, manipulate, moderate, narrate, navigate, operate, radiate, refrigerate, regulate, spectate, speculate, translate, violate

accelerator, accumulator, administrator, animator, calculator, commentator, creator, coordinator, decorator, dictator, educator, elevator, escalator, generator, illustrator, indicator, investigator, manipulator, moderator, narrator, navigator, operator, radiator, refrigerator, regulator, spectator, speculator, translator, violator

Исключения

compete, save, survive

competitor, savior (Am), survivor

+ -ry

существительные + -ry

chemist, dentist, peasant, poet, rival, wizard

chemistry, dentistry, peasantry, poetry, rivalry, wizardry

-er→ -ry

carpenter, minister, jeweler

carpentry, ministry, jewelry (Am)

+ -y

глаголы + -y

deliver, discover, embroider, recover, photograph

delivery, discovery, embroidery, recovery, photography

существительные + -y

baker, burglar, butcher, cooker, jeweller, robber

bakery, burglary, butchery, cookery, jewellery (Br), robbery

+ -ing

глаголы + -ingобразуют существительные, обозначающие род деятельности

account, act, bomb, book, box, build, burn, camp, clean, cook, draw, dress, drink, farm,

feel, fly, fight, fish, hear, heat, hunt, learn, meet, surf, open, mountaineer, paint, park, play, print, read, shoot, sing, test, train, teach, think, work

accounting, acting, bombing, booking, boxing, building, burning, camping, cleaning, cooking, drawing, dressing, drinking, farming, feeling, flying, fighting, fishing, hearing, heating, hunting, learning, meeting, surfing, opening, mountaineering, painting, parking, playing, printing, reading, shooting, singing, testing, training, teaching, thinking, working

-е на конце → -ing

advertise, breathe, cave, dance, dive, drive, mine, move, nurse, race, recycle, rule, save, skate, smoke, trade, write, etc.

advertising, breathing, caving, dancing, diving, driving, mining, moving, nursing, racing, recycling, ruling, saving, skating, smoking, trading, writing, etc.

согласная буква на конце, стоящая после ударной гласной, удваивается + -ing

babysit, begin, cut, jog, kidnap, knit, plan, program, rob, run, scan, ship, shop, slim, stop, swim, trim, win

babysitting, beginning, cutting, jogging, kidnapping, knitting, planning, programming, robbing, running, scanning, shipping, shopping, slimming, stopping, swimming, trimming, winning

l на конце удваивается (Br)

counsel, model, travel

counselling, modelling, travelling

существительные + -ing

bank, garden, yacht, game, caravan

banking, gardening, yachting, gaming, caravanning

+ -ment

глаголы + -ment

accomplish, achieve, acknowledge, adjust, advertise, agree, amend, amuse, announce, assess, astonish, attach, arrange, base, commit, develop, disappoint, embarrass, employ, encourage, endorse, enforce, engage, enjoy, entertain, enrol(l), equip, establish, excite, govern, imprison, improve, invest, involve, judge, manage, move, pave, pay, place, punish, recruit, replace, require, resent, retire, settle, ship, state, treat, etc.

accomplishment, achievement, acknowledgement, adjustment, advertisement, agreement, amendment, amusement, announcement, assessment, astonishment, attachment, arrangement, basement, commitment, development, disappointment, embarrassment, employment, encouragement, endorsement, enforcement, engagement, enjoyment, entertainment, enrol(l)ment, equipment, establishment, excitement, government, imprisonment, improvement, investment, involvement, judgement, management, movement, pavement, payment, placement, punishment, recruitment, replacement, requirement, resentment, retirement, settlement, shipment, statement, treatment, etc.

Исключения

(dis)arm, argue

(dis)armament, argument

+ -ance

глаголы + -ance

accept, allow, appear, annoy, assist, attend, avoid, clear, convey, deliver, disappear, disturb, inherit, perform, resist, utter

acceptance, allowance, appearance, annoyance, assistance, attendance, avoidance, clearance, conveyance, deliverance, disappearance, disturbance, inheritance, performance, resistance, utterance

Исключения

enter, remember, maintain

entrance, remembrance, maintenance

в глаголах -e на конце → -ance

assure, endure, insure, reassure

assurance, endurance, insurance, reassurance

continue, guide, ignore, resemble

continuance, guidance, ignorance, resemblance

согласная на конце, после ударной гласной, удваивается

admit, remit

admittance, remittance

-y после согласной →-i- + -ance

comply, rely

compliance, reliance

некоторые глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ate, -ate → -ance

dominate, tolerate

dominance, tolerance

в некоторых случаях суффикс -ance может прибавляться к прилагательному, -ant → -ance

abundant, arrogant, brilliant, distant, elegant, important, relevant, reluctant, resonant, significant

abundance, arrogance, brilliance, distance, elegance, importance, relevance, reluctance, resonance, significance

+-ence

глаголы + -ence

coexist, exist, insist, persist, subsist

coexistence, existence, insistence, persistence, subsistence

confer, differ, prefer, refer, transfer

conference, difference, preference, reference, transference

correspond, depend

correspondence, dependence

некоторые глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -end, -end → -ence

defend, offend, pretend

defence, offence, pretence

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -e, -е на конце → - ence

adhere, interfere

adherence, interference

emerge, indulge

emergence, indulgence

coincide, reside

coincidence, residence

-r на конце после ударной гласной удваивается

abhor, deter, occur

abhorrence, deterrence, occurrence

буква -l на конце удваивается

excel

excellence

Исключения

obey

obedience

прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ent, -ent → -ence

absent, adolescent, ambivalent, competent, confident, convenient, equivalent, evident, excellent, impatient, innocent, intelligent, patient, permanent, prevalent, prominent, turbulent, violent

absence, adolescence, ambivalence, competence, confidence, convenience, equivalence, evidence, excellence, impatience, innocence, intelligence, patience, permanence, prevalence, prominence, turbulence, violence

+-tion

глаголы + -ion

edit, exhibit, insert, invent, prevent, prohibit, suggest

edition, exhibition, insertion, invention, prevention, prohibition, suggestion

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ate, -e → -ion

animate, appreciate, assassinate, associate, calculate, celebrate, circulate, complicate, communicate, create, commemorate, correlate, compensate, concentrate, congratulate, cooperate, coordinate, corporate, decorate, dedicate, demonstrate, delegate, discriminate, dominate, donate, educate, evacuate, evaluate, exaggerate, excavate, frustrate, generate, graduate, hesitate, illustrate, imitate, immigrate, innovate, investigate, irritate, isolate, legislate, locate, moderate, narrate, motivate, navigate, negotiate, operate, participate, populate, radiate, recreate, regulate, separate, situate, speculate, translate, vegetate, vibrate, violate

animation, appreciation, assassination, association, calculation, celebration, circulation, complication, communication, creation, commemoration, correlation, compensation, concentration,

congratulation, cooperation, coordination, corporation, decoration, dedication, demonstration, delegation, discrimination, domination, donation, education, evacuation, evaluation, exaggeration, excavation, frustration, generation, graduation, hesitation, illustration, imitation, immigration, innovation, investigation, irritation, isolation, legislation, location, moderation, narration, motivation, navigation, negotiation, operation, participation, population, radiation, recreation, regulation, separation, situation, speculation, translation, vegetation, vibration, violation

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ete, -ite, -ote, -ute, -e→ -ion

complete, delete

completion, deletion

ignite

ignition

devote, promote

devotion, promotion

constitute, contribute, execute, persecute, pollute, prosecute

constitution, contribution, execution, persecution, pollution, prosecution

Исключения

compete, invite, excite

competition, invitation, excitement

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ct + -ion

act, attract, collect, reject, connect, construct, contract, convict, correct, direct, distract, elect, erect, infect, inject, object, perfect, predict, project, react, protect, recollect, reflect, reconstruct, restrict, select, subtract

action, attraction, collection, rejection, connection, construction, contraction, conviction, correction, direction, distraction, election, erection, infection, injection, objection, perfection, prediction, projection, reaction, protection, recollection, reflection, reconstruction, restriction, selection, subtraction

Исключения

expect

expectation

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -pt + -ion

adopt, corrupt, disrupt, except, interrupt

adoption, corruption, disruption, exception, interruption

Исключения

abolish, publish

abolition, publication

глаголы + -ation

exploit, expect, found, install, limit, recommend, relax, tax, transport

exploitation, expectation, foundation, installation, limitation, recommendation, relaxation, taxation, transportation

Исключения

explain

explanation

буква -l на конце удваивается

cancel

cancellation

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -rm + -ation

affirm, confirm

affirmation, confirmation

form, inform, reform, transform

formation, information, reformation, transformation

некоторые глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -nt + -ation

confront, document, experiment, present, implement, represent

confrontation, documentation, experimentation, presentation, implementation, representation

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -er + -ation

alter, consider

alteration, consideration

Исключения

register

registration

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -y, -y → -ication

apply, classify, identify, imply, justify, magnify, modify, notify, purify, qualify, signify, specify, unify, verify

application, classification, identification, implication, justification, magnification, modification, notification, purification, qualification, signification, specification, unification, verification

Исключения

occupy, satisfy

occupation, satisfaction

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -re, -e → -ation

declare, prepare

declaration, preparation

admire, aspire, expire, inspire

admiration, aspiration, expiration, inspiration

adore, explore, restore

adoration, exploration, restoration

Исключения

require, retire

requirement, retirement

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ize, -e → -ation

civilize, commercialize, generalize, localize, modernize, organize, realize, socialize, specialize, utilize

civilization, commercialization, generalization, localization, modernization, organization, realization, socialization, specialization, utilization

Исключения

recognize

recognition

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -e, -e → -ation

combine, determine, examine, imagine

combination, determination, examination, imagination

conserve, observe, preserve

conservation, observation, preservation

accuse, continue, converse, invite, quote, oblige

accusation, continuation, conversation, invitation, quotation, obligation

Исключения

define, pronounce

definition, pronunciation

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -uce, -e → -tion

deduce, induce, introduce, produce, reduce, reproduce

deduction, induction, introduction, production, reduction, reproduction

глаголы + -ition

add, repeat

addition, repetition

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ose, -e → -ition

compose, dispose, expose, oppose, propose, suppose

composition, disposition, exposition, opposition, proposition, supposition

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ume, -e → -ption

assume, consume, presume, resume

assumption, consumption, presumption, resumption

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -eive, -ive → -ption

conceive, deceive, perceive, receive

conception, deception, perception, reception

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -cribe, -be → -ption

describe, inscribe, prescribe, subscribe, transcribe

description, inscription, prescription, subscription, transcription

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -olve, -ve → -ution

devolve, evolve, resolve, revolve, solve

devolution, evolution, resolution, revolution, solution

Исключения

involve

destroy

involvement

destruction

прилагательные + -ion

distinct, extinct

distinction, extinction

+ -sion

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ss + -ion

compress, confess, depress, express, impress, obsess, possess, process, profess, progress, regress, repress, transgress

compression, confession, depression, expression, impression, obsession, possession, procession, profession, progression, regression, repression, transgression

discuss

discussion

Исключения

assess, embarrass

assessment, embarrassment

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -mit, -t → -ssion

admit, commit, emit, omit, permit, submit, transmit

admission, commission, emission, omission, permission, submission, transmission

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ade, -ide, -ude, -de→ -sion

persuade, invade

persuasion, invasion

collide, decide, divide, provide

collision, decision, division, provision

conclude, exclude, include, intrude, protrude

conclusion, exclusion, inclusion, intrusion, protrusion

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -end/-and, -d → -sion

apprehend, comprehend, extend, pretend, suspend

apprehension, comprehension, extension, pretension, suspension

expand

expansion

Исключения

attend, depend

attendance, dependence

глаголы, оканчивающиеся на -ise, -use, -e → -ion

revise, supervise, televise

revision, supervision, television

confuse, fuse, infuse

confusion, fusion, infusion

Исключения

accuse, amuse

accusation, amusement

глаголы + -erse, -e→-ion

immerse, reverse

immersion, reversion

глаголы+ -ert, -t→ -sion

convert, divert, invert

conversion, diversion, inversion

прилагательные + -ion

precise

precision

3.9. Образуйте существительные, используя суффиксы -er/-or, -tion/-sion, -ance/-ence, -ment:

1. expand

2. edit

3. supply

4. describe

5. divert

6. embarrass

7. attend

8. express

9. prefer

10. repeat

11. ignore

12. law

13. involve

14. supervise

15. determine

3.10. Образуйте существительные, используя суффиксы -er/-or, -tion/-sion, -ance/-ence, -ment:

1. require

2. defend

3. oblige

4. maintain

5. carpentry

6. animate

7. endure

8. emit

9. excel

10. add

11. survive

12. amuse

13. shop

14. reduce

15. immerse

3.11. Образуйте существительные, используя суффиксы -er/-or, -tion/-sion, -ance/-ence, -ment:

1. accuse

2. begin

3. enter

4. persuade

5. produce

6. indulge

7. invent

8. impatient

9. deceive

10. govern

11. divide

12. distribute

13. rely

14. suppose

15. achieve

3.12. Заполните пропуски существительными, образованными от слов, напечатанных в конце строк заглавными буквами.

1. A famous ___________ was killed yesterday.

2. Everyone understands the ___________ of environmental ___________.

3. Many rare species are threatened with ___________.

4. We must struggle for the ___________ of endangered species.

5. Millions of people in the world are threatened with ___________.

6. There is no ___________ between him and his father.

7. This job loses its ___________ after a while.

8. There are no simple ___________ to the problem of air pollution.

9. You should make ___________ for emergencies.

10. There were more than 1,000 ___________ in the race.

REPORT

IMPORTANT, PROTECT

EXTINCT

EXIST

STARVE

RESEMBLE

EXCITE

SOLVE

PROVIDE

COMPETE

3.13. Заполните пропуски существительными, образованными от слов, напечатанных в конце строк заглавными буквами.

1. A lot of money was spent on the ___________ of the new hospital.

2. I soon came to the ___________ that she was lying.

3. Jane is the best ___________ in our group.

4. Do you know the correct ___________ of this word?

5. ___________ can have a variety of causes.

6. The painting was bought by a private ___________.

7. I just need to make a few ___________ before we can print the article.

8. Technical ___________ is provided free of charge.

9. This ___________ appeared in three newspapers.

10. Mr. Porter is asking for a contract ___________.

EQUIP

CONCLUDE

SWIM

PRONOUNCE

DISOBEY

COLLECT

CORRECT

ASSIST

ADVERTISE

EXTEND

Комплексные упражнения в формате ЕГЭ

3.14. Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

The increasing use of public high school exit exams is one (1) ___________ of the current movement in US public schooling towards (2) ___________ and more explicit standards of (3) ___________ Raising the bar for the standards of (4) ___________ creates incentives both for students to work harder in school and for (5) ___________ to increase their (6) ___________ to low-achieving students. Such incentives should most strongly affect the (7) ___________ of students who fail an exit exam the first time they take the test and increase their (8) ___________. However, raising standards makes tests more challenging and increases the (9) ___________ of failing a test. That is why no official (10) ___________ have yet been made about changes to the existing requirements.

MANIFESTATE

ACCOUNTABLE

INSTRUCT

GRADUATE

TEACH

ASSIST

MOTIVATE

PERSIST

POSSIBLE

DECIDE

3.15. Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

Bullying is a general term applied to a pattern of behaviour when one person with a lot of internal anger, (1) ___________ and lack of interpersonal skills chooses to displace their (2) ___________ onto another person. Bullying comes in many forms. Things like constant criticism, (3) ___________ or teasing are all different ways of bullying. Recently there has been an increase in (4) ___________ of bullying in schools. (5) ___________ note that society is beginning to recognize the influence of bullying on children’s (6) ___________. They focus on the fact that bullying is a common and damaging form of peer (7) ___________. Not only does bullying restrict a bullied person’s (8) ___________, it also affects the climate of the school, which indirectly affects the abilities of all (9) ___________. That is why the phenomenon of bullying deserves special attention by (10) ___________.

RESENT

AGGRESSIVE

EXCLUDE

AWARE

RESEARCH

DEVELOP

RELATION

FREE

LEARN

EDUCATE

3.16. Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

The Pilsner (1) ___________ Frantisek Balek was born in 1954. After an (2) ___________ in the Carlsbad porcelain factory, he became a ceramist. His interest in art soon led him to Prague, where he studied applied sculpture under the (3) ___________ of a famous professor Josef Malejovsky. The main theme of his works is a classical (4) ___________ of a human figure, but he also tries out an abstract (5) ___________. He masters the procession of metals, stone and other materials. (6) ___________ and the amazing feeling caused by the play of shades are typical of his artistic (7) ___________. He always relies on his sensing the (8) ___________, which keeps supplying him with (9) ___________. He reaches his greatest success in international ice and sand carving competitions. The current (10) ___________ allows us to follow the way the (11) ___________ has gone through. No doubt, we ought to preserve his works of art for future (12) ___________.

SCULPT

APPRENTICE

SUPERVISE

DESCRIBE

EXPRESS

MODEST

CREATE

REAL

INSPIRE

EXHIBIT

ART

GENERATE

3.17. Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

Are you a highly organized and responsible professional? Is (1) ___________ your first priority? Do you have the (2) ___________ to meet new people? Then this job is for you. ‘Home Corp’ is looking for a friendly and motivated (3) ___________ to join our team. The ideal candidate must be bright, organised and have excellent (4) ___________ skills. Your daily (5) ___________ will include: being the front of house, dealing with general (6) ___________, answering phones, booking taxis and hotels, making (7) ___________, assisting managers in the (8) ___________ office as well as general office duties. Previous experience and (9) ___________ are important. The salary is above average level but your (10) ___________ will also depend on the volume of work.

ACCURATE

CONFIDENT

RECEPTION

COMMUNICATE

RESPONSIBLE

CORRESPOND

ARRANGE

PRODUCE

QUALIFY

PAY

3.18. Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

Every child is good at something. Learning how to play a sport is a learning exercise that is as useful to a child’s (1) ___________ as other learning experiences are. (2) ___________ focuses on what children do not do well whereas (3) ___________, praise and cooperation develop a feeling of (4) ___________. The most important sports for children are football, basketball, volleyball, hockey and other sports that require a number of (5) ___________. Sports that should be emphasized for children are those that involve speed and (6) ___________ instead of sports that emphasize violence. (7) ___________ point out that youth sports can act as a deterrent to negative behaviour like smoking or using drugs. This is because competitive sports provide an opportunity for (8) ___________ friendship and emotional (9) ___________. Competing in youth sports is also a positive way of getting out (10) ___________, so children and teens are less likely to become violent or join gangs.

DEVELOP

COMPETE

ENCOURAGE

HAPPY

PLAY

COORDINATE

SPECIAL

CHILD

EXPRESS

AGGRESSIVE





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