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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018

Раздел ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Задания 26-31

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК ПО СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Префиксы

Префиксы существительных/глаголов

Префикс

Прибавляется к

Значение

Примеры

существительное

глагол

re-

глаголу/существительному

повторное действие

re-election,

re-entry,

rearrangement,

recreation,

reorganization

reread,

rebuilt,

redecorate,

rename,

rearrange,

reapply,

reopen,

refill,

reconsider,

rediscover,

recycle,

reuse,

restart,

regain,

relive,

reset

dis-

глаголу/существительному

противоположное значение

disbelief,

disadvantage,

disorder,

disagreement,

disarmament,

disability,

disinformation,

dissatisfaction,

disloyalty,

disapproval,

discomfort

disagree,

disappear,

distrust,

disapprove,

disobey,

disarm,

disconnect,

discontinue,

disbelieve,

disrespect,

disorientate,

disqualify,

displease,

dislike,

discover,

discourage

mis-

глаголу/существительному

плохой или неправильный

misadventure,

misfortune,

misconduct,

misbehaviour,

misinterpretation

misbehave,

misunderstand,

miscalculate,

misinterpret,

misdirect,

misuse,

mislead,

misspell,

mispronounce,

misinform,

mistrust,

misjudge

un-

глаголу/существительному

противоположное значение

unreality,

untruth

(formal)

unfold,

uninstall,

unload,

unlock,

unmask,

unpack,

unplug,

unroll,

untie,

unveil,

unwind,

unwrap,

uncover

in-

существительному

отсутствие

inability,

inaction,

inaccuracy,

inattention,

inconvenience,

inequity,

indigestion,

inefficiency,

inequality,

intolerance,

injustice,

instability

-

im-

существительному

противоположное значение

imbalance,

immorality,

immortality,

impurity,

impossibility

immobilize

2.1. Образуйте однокоренные слова, используя префиксы.

1. start

2. arm

3. accuracy

4. adventure

5. agree

6. live

7. like

8. name

9. reality

10. purity

11. build

12. conduct

13. belief

14. pay

15. tie

2.2. Образуйте однокоренные слова, используя префиксы.

1. print

2. pronounce

3. close

4. make

5. charge

6. stability

7. spell

8. respect

9. pack

10. place

11. tolerance

12. search

13. interpret

14. read

15. advantage

2.3. Используя отрицательные префиксы, преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию предложений. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

1. Dr. Jackson shook his head in __________. He was clearly against this offer.

2. The instructions are carefully written in order to avoid __________.

3. Your room is old. It needs __________.

4. The __________ between production and consumption will cause serious problems.

5. In case of any __________, please call us immediately.

6. The dinosaurs __________ from Earth millions of years ago.

7. Electronic readers will __________ printed books in the future.

8. Many people were __________ with the results of the election.

9. It was my __________ to be chosen first.

10. After the death of his wife, my uncle never __________.

APPROVAL

UNDER

STANDING

DECORATING

BALANCE

CONVENIENCE

APPEARED

PLACE

PLEASED

FORTUNE

MARRIED

2.4. Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

Corporal punishment used to be an official form of punishment students for their (1) __________. Supporters of school corporal punishment argue that it provided an immediate response to (2) __________. Children knew that if they (3) __________, they would get the cane. In fact, it was a legalized beating of a child that is why many countries (4) __________ of this form of punishment and finally abolished it.

However, a survey of more than 6,000 teachers, made by the Times, found out that one in five teachers would like to see the cane (5) __________ in UK schools. The survey results reflect teachers’ (6) __________ caused by the lack of options they have to discipline children and the (7) __________ they have to face. Unfortunate teachers have absolutely no ways to oppose (8) __________ in their classrooms. Although many of them agree that corporal punishment is unacceptable in modern society, they are (9) __________ with the present-day atmosphere in schools and their (10) __________ to protect their own rights.

CONDUCT

DISCIPLINE

BEHAVED

APPROVED

INTRODUCED

COMFORT

JUSTICE

ORDER

SATISFIED

ABILITY

Префиксы прилагательных

Префиксы un-, in-, im-, il-, ir-, dis- придают прилагательному отрицательное значение.

Префикс

Правила

Примеры

Исключения

il-

прибавляется к некоторым прилагательным, начинающимся с буквы l

illegal,

illegible,

illiterate,

illiberal,

illogical,

illegitimate

unlawful,

unleaded,

unlicensed,

unlike,

unlikely,

unlimited,

unlisted,

unlovely,

unlovable,

unlucky,

disloyal

ir-

прибавляется к некоторым прилагательным, начинающимся с буквы r

irregular,

irresponsible,

irresistible,

irrational,

irreligious,

irrelevant,

irreplaceable

unreal,

unreasonable,

unripe,

unrecognizable,

unreliable,

unrepeatable,

unremarkable,

unreserved,

unresponsive,

unrealistic,

unrepresentative

im-

прибавляется к некоторым прилагательным, начинающимся с буквы m

immoral,

immobile,

immortal,

immature,

immaterial,

immodest,

immemorial,

immeasurable

unmade,

unmanageable,

unmanned,

unmarked,

unmarried,

unmemorable,

unmistakable,

unmitigated

прибавляется к некоторым прилагательным, начинающимся с буквы p

impossible,

impolite,

impure,

impractical,

imperfect,

impatient,

improper,

impersonal,

imprecise,

improbable,

imprudent,

impermanent,

impassive

unpatriotic,

unplanned,

unpopular,

unpleasant,

unproven,

unpunished,

unpredictable,

unprepared,

unproductive,

unprofitable,

unprotected,

unpaid,

unpublished,

unpronounceable,

unprofessional

dis-

прибавляется к некоторым прилагательным

disabled,

dissimilar,

dishonest,

disunited,

disorganized,

dissatisfied,

disloyal,

displeased,

disgraceful,

discontinuous

unorganized (не являющийся членом организации)

un-

прибавляется к прилагательным, начинающимся с буквы b

unbalanced,

unbroken,

unbearable,

unbelievable,

unbreakable

-

прибавляется к прилагательным, начинающимся с буквы g

ungenerous,

ungrateful,

ungovernable,

unglued,

ungracious,

unguarded,

ungrammatical

inglorious

прибавляется к прилагательным, начинающимся с буквы i

unidentified,

unimaginable,

unimaginative,

unimpaired,

unimportant,

unimpressive,

unindustrialized,

uninviting,

uninformative,

uninhabited,

unintelligent,

unintelligible,

unintentional,

uninteresting

inimitable

прибавляется к прилагательным, начинающимся с буквы w

unwaged,

unwanted,

unwary,

unwelcome,

unwell,

unwilling,

unwise,

unwitting,

unworthy,

unwritten

-

un-

прибавляется к прилагательным, начинающимся с букв k, q, u, y

unkind,

unknown,

unqualified,

unquiet,

unquestionable,

unusable,

unused,

unusual,

unutterable,

unyielding

-

прибавляется к Participle II в функции прилагательного

undone,

undivided,

untitled,

unelected,

untold,

unopened,

uneducated,

unexplored,

unoccupied,

untouched

indisposed,

inexperienced,

immobilized

Префиксы in-/un- прибавляются к прилагательным, начинающимся с букв

Префикс in-

Префикс un-

a

inaccurate,

inaccessible,

inactive,

inadmissible,

inalienable,

inadequate,

inapplicable,

inattentive,

inappropriate,

inaudible

unable,

unacceptable,

unaware,

unaccompanied,

unaccustomed,

unadventurous,

unaffected,

unafraid,

unanswered,

unappealing,

unarmed,

unashamed,

unauthorized,

unavoidable

c

incapable,

inconvenient,

incoherent,

incomplete,

incomparable,

incurious,

incompatible,

incredible,

inconsistent,

inconstant,

incompetent,

incautious,

incomprehensible,

incorrect,

inconsiderate,

incurable

uncertain,

unchangeable,

unconvinced,

unchanged,

unchecked,

uncivilized,

unclassified,

uncommon,

uncompetitive,

uncommunicative,

unclear,

uncritical,

uncomplicated,

unclean,

unconcealed,

unconfirmed,

unconnected,

unconscious,

unconstitutional,

uncooked,

uncontrolled,

uncut

d

indecent,

indecisive,

independent,

indirect,

indefensible,

indefinite,

indelicate,

indifferent,

indistinct,

indivisible,

indisputable

undamaged,

undecided,

undefeated,

undeclared,

undefended,

undemocratic,

undeniable,

undesirable,

undetected,

undeterred,

undeveloped,

undiplomatic,

undisciplined,

undisguised,

undisputed,

undisturbed,

undrinkable,

undressed

e

inedible,

ineffective,

inefficient,

inexact,

inexcusable,

inexpensive,

inexpert,

inexperienced,

inexpressible

unearned,

uneasy,

uneatable,

uneven,

uneconomic,

uneconomical,

unethical,

unemotional,

unemployed,

unemployable,

unendurable,

unenthusiastic,

unequal,

unexpected,

unexplained,

unexciting

f

infamous,

infertile,

infinite,

infirm,

inflexible,

informal

unfair,

unfit,

unfaithful,

unfamiliar,

unfashionable,

unfavourable,

unfeasible,

unforeseeable,

unforgettable,

unforgivable,

unfortunate,

unfriendly,

unfunny

h

inhospitable,

inhuman,

inhumane

unhappy,

unharmed,

unhealthy,

unheard,

unhelpful,

unhesitating,

unholy,

unhurt,

unhurried,

unhygienic,

unhampered

j

injudicious

unjust,

unjustifiable,

unjustified

n

innumerate,

innumerable

unnamed,

unnatural,

unnecessary,

unnoticed,

unnumbered

o

inoffensive,

inoperative,

inoperable,

inorganic

unobtainable,

unobtrusive,

unofficial,

unopposed,

unorganised,

unorthodox

s

insane,

insecure,

insensitive,

insensible,

inseparable,

insignificant,

insoluble,

insubstantial,

insufficient

unsafe,

unsanitary,

unsatisfactory,

unsure,

unstable,

unsocial,

unsound,

unscheduled,

unscientific,

unscrupulous,

unseasonable,

unselfish,

unsettled,

unsociable,

unsolved,

unsophisticated,

unspectacular,

unsteady,

unstoppable,

unsuccessful,

unsurprising,

unsustainable,

unsympathetic,

unsuitable

t

intolerant,

intolerable,

intoxicated,

intransitive

untainted,

unthinkable,

untidy,

untreated,

untroubled,

untrue,

untruthful,

untypical,

untrustworthy,

untiring,

untimely

v

invalid,

invaluable,

invariable,

invisible,

involuntary,

invulnerable

unvarnished,

unvarying,

unvoiced

2.5. Образуйте антонимы от следующих слов, используя префиксы.

1. popular

2. formal

3. social

4. limited

5. perfect

6. appropriate

7. known

8. possible

9. different

10. necessary

11. secure

12. important

13. ripe

14. famous

15. usual

2.6. Образуйте антонимы от следующих слов, используя префиксы.

1. mobile

2. visible

3. proper

4. friendly

5. loyal

6. likely

7. direct

8. safe

9. written

10. capable

11. sincere

12. interested

13. pure

14. able

15. convenient

2.7. Образуйте антонимы от следующих слов, используя префиксы.

1. similar

2. acceptable

3. certain

4. curious

5. reasonable

6. satisfied

7. successful

8. precise

9. fashionable

10. hospitable

11. moral

12. glorious

13. distinct

14. humane

15. patriotic

2.8. Образуйте антонимы от следующих слов, используя префиксы.

1. mortal

2. common

3. fortunate

4. material

5. competent

6. countable

7. tolerant

8. efficient

9. professional

10. prudent

11. flexible

12. employed

13. even

14. pleased

15. reliable

2.9. Используя отрицательные префиксы, преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию предложений. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

1. John does badly at school because he is very ___________.

2. Everyone knows that smoking is ___________.

3. I didn’t liked that shop because the staff were very ___________.

4. We were pleasantly surprised as the tickets were rather ___________.

5. If I were you, I wouldn’t do business with Jack. He is an extremely ___________ person.

6. He forgave his son’s ___________ behaviour.

7. She felt cold and ___________.

8. This medicine can have ___________ side effects.

9. Critics say he has been weak and ___________.

10. I think it would be ___________ to leave the party so early.

ATTENTIVE

HEALTHY

HELPFUL

EXPENSIVE

ORGANIZED

MATURE

COMFORTABLE

DESIRABLE

DECISIVE

POLITE

2.10. Используя префиксы, преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию предложений. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

1. Our manager is rather ___________ to the needs of the disabled.

2. It’s ___________ that their project failed. It wasn’t ready.

3. She is ___________. She doesn’t always tell the truth.

4. The room was dirty and ___________.

5. Don’t be so ___________! The guests will come soon.

6. We can’t charge him with murder due to ___________ evidence.

7. There are lots of weird and ___________ things in the world.

8. Susan was hopelessly ___________ around the house.

9. Our holiday left an ___________ impression on me.

10. He is wrong! His answer is ___________.

SENSITIVE

SURPRISING

HONEST

TIDY

PATIENT

SUFFICIENT

EXPLAINED

PRACTICAL

FORGETTABLE

CORRECT

2.11. Используя префиксы, преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию предложений. Глаголы следует поставить в нужное время. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

1. The car is becoming increasingly sophisticated and ___________.

2. The story lines of soap operas are absolutely ___________.

3. It seems ___________ that he doesn’t know anything about the murder.

4. Your foreign passport is ___________ without a visa.

5. We have proved that the difference between these two substances is ___________ and cannot influence our results.

6. The book is difficult because it is full of ___________ words.

7. It might sound ___________ of me, but I am very proud of our achievements.

8. They are producing energy from ___________ materials.

9. The climate in this region is rather changeable and the weather is really ___________.

10. Their attempt to change the rules has proved ___________.

RELIABLE

BELIEVABLE

PROBABLE

VALID

SIGNIFICANT

FAMILIAR

MODEST

ORGANIC

PREDICTABLE

EFFECTIVE

Комплексные упражнения

2.12. Прочитайте приведённый ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

For those who do not wish to continue in full time education after school, one of the most difficult issues facing today’s young people is (1) ___________. In the current economic climate, jobs are few and it’s (2) ___________ to find employment for those who have limited experience and qualifications. (3) ___________ to get a job can often result in increased crime, drug addiction and (4) ___________ behaviour. Although many teenagers are (5) ___________ with this situation, they are often (6) ___________ of changing anything. The British Government is currently encouraging young people to learn (7) ___________ trades such as plumbing or cooking while also urging employers to offer apprenticeships to young adults, which was earlier (8) ___________. This gives young people a goal in life and can be effective in building self-esteem and ambition.

EMPLOY

LIKELY

ABILITY

MORAL

PLEASED

CAPABLE

POPULAR

POSSIBLE

2.13. Прочитайте текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

You may be surprised to learn that you could be bringing (1) ___________ stress into your life by your own eating habits. In other words, not only does prolonged stress lead to (2) ___________ lifestyle patterns, but your nutrition habits also affect your ability to cope with (3) ___________ stress.

(4) ___________, poor food choices can create more stress in the long run as well as lead to different (5) ___________ diseases. Why do teenagers choose junk food? The first reason for making (6) ___________ choices is convenience. Junk food often comes in ready to eat forms whereas healthy equivalents require substantial preparation, which is (7) ___________. Another reason for bad eating habits is (8) ___________ food advertising. Most TV commercials are (9) ___________ and cause children to pressure their parents to buy junk food. No wonder that the problem of healthy eating causes a lot of (10) ___________ between parents and teenagers.

NECESSARY

HEALTHY

AVOIDABLE

FORTUNATELY

CURABLE

PROPER

CONVENIENT

CORRECT

LEADING

AGREEMENT

2.14. Прочитайте текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

Inattentional blindness is an (1) ___________ state when a person fails to notice an (2) ___________ but fully visible object. Some scientists see such blindness as a result of vision (3) ___________ However, this typically happens because people today are overloaded with inputs. It is (4) ___________ to pay attention to every single input, therefore humans are (5) ___________ to focus their attention on everything they see. Many people falsely believe that they don’t experience this type of blindness because they are (6) ___________ that they are missing things. The best proof of this phenomenon is the ‘(7) ___________ Gorilla’ test, when people are (8) ___________ of seeing ‘a gorilla’ because they are engaged in a difficult task of counting the balls. The same situation takes place when a driver, especially (9) ___________ one, is using his mobile phone while driving. This is extremely distracting and can lead to (10) ___________ accidents.

USUAL

EXPECTED

ORDER

POSSIBLE

ABLE

AWARE

VISIBLE

CAPABLE

EXPERIENCED

PREDICTABLE

2.15. Прочитайте текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

Ball lightning is the most curious of (1) ___________ phenomena. Witnessed by many people, it was (2) ___________ for many years. Then, after repeated sightings by accredited scientists, it gradually won acceptance as a real effect. It appears as a glowing sphere, floats around slowly for several seconds and then (3) ___________.

The problem is that although we know what it looks like, there is still scientific (4) ___________ over what ball lightning actually is. Various descriptions of ball lightning make it (5) ___________ to create a reliable hypothesis that will take into account the described behaviour. Today several radically (6) ___________ theories are battling for acceptance. The contest might be resolved if someone could (7) ___________ ball lightning in the laboratory. (8) ___________, this has never been done, or at least not officially. The interest in ball lightning dates back several decades in the US and in Russia. However, the results of their (9) ___________ have largely remained (10) ___________.

EXPLAINED

REGARDED

APPEARS

AGREEMENT

POSSIBLE

COMPATIBLE

CREATE

FORTUNATELY

SEARCH

SUCCESSFUL





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