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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018

Раздел ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Задания 19-25

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ

Модальные глаголы

Модальный глагол can и его эквивалент be able to

Глагол

Значение

Настоящее

Время

Прошедшее

Время

Будущее

время

can

реальная возможность совершения действия; умение

I can/can’t swim.

I could/couldn’t come yesterday.

I will/won’t be able to do it tomorrow.

неформальное разрешение

Can/Could I use your pencil?

My parents said I could watch TV.

Can/Could I go out tomorrow?

запрещение

You can’t go out!

вежливая просьба

Could you tell me the way to Trafalgar Square, please?

сомнение, недоверие

It can’t be true.

Can he have said it?

be

able

to

возможность совершения действия в определённой ситуации (часто преодолевая трудности)

I am (un)able to do it right now.

We were/weren’t able to buy the tickets for yesterday’s show.

I will/won’t be able to do it tomorrow.

Обратите внимание на то, что полная отрицательная форма глагола саn пишется слитно: cannot.

9.1. Прочитайте текст и вставьте в пропуски глаголы can/cant, could/couldnt или will be able to так, чтобы они соответствовали содержанию текста.

When James was a child, he was rather unusual. He (1) ____________ read or write properly, but he (2) ____________ draw very well and he drew wonderful pictures. He was really talented because he (3) ____________ draw a perfect portrait of a person in thirty minutes.

Now he is a student at an art college and he (4) ____________ draw different kinds of pictures. Most of all he enjoys painting landscapes. He says that in the past he (5) ____________ do it because he wasn’t as good at choosing colours as he is now. He is practising really hard and he (6) ____________ spend the whole day painting. He says he will always love art and in the future he (7) ____________ paint like the greatest artists of the past.

9.2. Прочитайте текст и вставьте в пропуски глаголы can/cant, could/couldnt или will/wont be able to так, чтобы они соответствовали содержанию текста.

In 1623, William Schickard, a German scientist, designed a calculating machine. It (1) ____________ multiply long numbers. Unfortunately, that first calculator was destroyed by fire, therefore Schickard (2) ____________ finish his project. Unknown to the world for more than three centuries, it was rediscovered in 1957 and led to the creation of modern computers.

Nowadays computers (3) ____________ do lots of things, of course. There are computers in almost every school and office. We use them to talk to people all over the world and we play great games on them, too. However, they (4) ____________ replace real people as they (5) ____________ only follow our instructions.

In the future computers (6) ____________ talk and to think as well as to do what they (7) ____________ do in the past. Yet they will always be machines and they (8) ____________ fall in love and be our friends.

Модальные глаголы may и must

Глагол

Значение

Настоящее

Время

Прошедшее

Время

Будущее

Время

may

формальное разрешение

May I come in? — Yes, you may.

He asked if he might come in.

предположение с невысокой степенью уверенности

He may/ might be having dinner now.

He may/might not have come yet.

He may/ might come later.

must

приказ, осознанная необходимость

I must learn well.

You must go out.

I had to go to school yesterday.

I will have to learn this rule.

запрещение

You mustn’t smoke.

предположение с очень высокой степенью уверенности

He must be right.

He must have misunderstood me.

They must be leaving tomorrow.

9.3. Вставьте в пропуски глаголы must или may.

1. Your watch is 20 minutes fast. There ______________ be some problems with it.

2. Your parents ______________ be upset but they ______________ realise why you’re so unhappy.

3. Jane is about the same age as me so she ______________ be in her forties.

4. ______________ I borrow your pen?

5. It’s getting dark. It ______________ be 8 o’clock already.

6. He ______________ know something about this but I’m not quite sure.

7. Excuse me, ______________ I smoke here?

8. They look almost alike. They ______________ be twins.

9. ‘Jane hasn’t come yet.’ ‘Don’t worry. She ______________ come later.’

10. If you want to have a well-paid job, you ______________ study English. It ______________ help you in your future career.

9.4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.

Take Stress out of Revision

Here are a few simple tips how to make your revision less stressful. First of all, plan and structure your revision. You (1)--------- ______________ do this as you will (2) ______________ to cover every topic which is necessary to revise. Try to work out a revision timetable and start planning well before the exams. You won’t (3) ______________ to achieve excellent results without proper planning. Once the timetable is done, try to stick to it as best as you (4) ______________.____________

Don’t be upset if you (5) ______________ cover a large section of material in one day. Just remember that practice makes perfect so keep doing exercises until you feel confident about the subject you learn. It (6) ______________ be a good idea to use mind maps for memorising or you (7)_________ ______________ discuss what you’ve learnt with your friend. Different methods will work for different people.

Try to find some copies of previous exam papers which (8) ______________ be available in the library or on the Internet. You (9) ______________ also do practice questions of the type that you will be writing within the time limit of the actual exam. Work for short periods of 30 to 40 minutes. This is the amount of time that most people (10) ______________ concentrate effectively for without losing interest.

1. 1) couldn’t

2) could

3) mustn’t

4) must

2. 1) must

2) have

3) can

4) may

3. 1) be able

2) able

3) have

4) can

4. 1) must

2) may

3) can

4) could

5. 1) will have

2) can’t

3) mustn’t

4) may

6. 1) can’t

2) had to

3) will have to

4) might

7. 1) have to

2) can’t

3) must

4) could

8. 1) may

2) have to

3) can’t

4) mustn’t

9. 1) mustn’t

2) could

3) have to

4) had to

10. 1) may

2) might

3) must

4) can

Модальный эквивалент have to

Эквивалент have to не является модальным глаголом и образует свои формы как обычный глагол to have. В отличие от модальных глаголов за эквивалентом have всегда ставится to.

Предложение

Утвердительное

Отрицательное

Вопросительное

Present Simple

I have to + V

He/She/It has to + V

We/You/They have to + V

I don’t have to + V

He/She/It doesn’t have to + V

We/You/They don’t have to + V

Do I have to + V ...?

Does he/she/it have to + V ...?

Do we/you/they have to + V ...?

Past Simple

S + had to + V

S + didn’t have to + V

Did + S + have to + V ...?

Future Simple

S + will have to + V

S + won’t have to + V

Will + S + have to + V ...?

Эквивалент have to в отличие от модального глагола must выражает необходимость под влиянием вынуждающих обстоятельств. В отрицательных предложениях have toвыражает отсутствие необходимости сделать что-либо.

have to

вынужденная необходимость

Do you have to wear a uniform? Ты должен носить форму?

He had to learn this poem.

Ему пришлось выучить это стихотворение.

You will have to wait.

Вам придется подождать.

отсутствие необходимости

I don’t have to do this exercise.

Мне не надо делать это упражнение.

I didn’t have to get up early yesterday.

Мне не надо было вставать рано вчера.

I won’t have to meet him.

Мне не надо будет встречать его.

9.5. Вставьте в пропуски глагол must или правильную форму глагола have to.

1. You _________ (not) talk during the film.

2. We forgot our tickets at home so we _________ go back.

3. Jane missed the test yesterday so she _________ do it tomorrow.

4. You _________ have been upset when you heard this news.

5. I’m sorry but Jack isn’t here. He _________ leave about an hour ago.

6. He’s got a problem with his stomach and he _________ visit his doctor every week.

7. You _________ (not) go shopping today. We’ve got enough food in the fridge.

8. The conference hall is really crowded. There _________ be about a thousand people there.

9. That’s really good news. I _________ tell Mark about it.

10. ‘Can we meet today?’ ‘Oh, no. Sorry, I _________ go to the dentist.

11. The bus arrived on time so we _________ (not) wait long.

12. I’m feeling really unfit. I _________ do more exercise.

13. I think she _________ be rich. She’s got at least two cars.

14. I didn’t have any money so I _________ borrow some from my sister.

15. We _________ (not) carry our luggage because Dad will take us to the airport in his car.

Модальный эквивалент be to

Предложение

Утвердительное

Отрицательное

Вопросительное

Present Simple/Future Simple

I am to + V

He/She/It is to + V

We/You/They are to + V

I am not to + V

He/She/It is not to + V

We/You/They are not to + V

Am I to + V?

Is he/she/it to + V?

Are we/you/they to + V?

Past Simple

I/He/She/It was to + V

We/You/They were to + V

I/He/She/It was not to + V

We/You/They were not to + V

Was I/he/she/it to + V?

Were we/you/ they to + V?

Эквивалент be to в отличие от модального глагола must выражает долженствование по договоренности, графику, расписанию.

be to

необходимость по графику,договорённости

The train is to arrive in five minutes.

Поезд должен прийти через пять минут.

He was to do it.

Он должен был сделать это (мы договорились).

The director was to sign the contract.

Директор должен был подписать контракт.

They are to arrive tomorrow.

Они должны приехать завтра.

Внимание! Для выражения долженствования по графику/договоренности в будущем используется настоящая форма глагола to be

9.6. Вставьте в пропуски глагол to be в нужной форме.

1. We _________ to finish the project by next Monday.

2. He _________ to come an hour ago.

3. The train _________ to arrive in 10 minutes.

4. They _________ to sign this contract yesterday.

5. The president _________ to announce his proposals tomorrow.

6. Sorry, I can’t go shopping with you. I _________ to meet a foreign delegation in an hour.

7. We _________ to learn this poem by next Friday.

8. According to the contract, the company _________ to deliver all technical documentation two months ago.

9. The election campaign _________ to start next week.

10. We _________ to meet at 8.00 but we only managed to come by 9 p.m.

Модальные глаголы should и need

should/ought to

настоятельный совет, рекомендация (следует)

You should/ought to listen carefully.

Тебе следует слушать внимательно.

-

You should/ought to visit the doctor.

Тебе следует посетить врача.

упрёк (следовало бы сделать, но не сделал)

-

You should have read this text.

Тебе следовало бы прочитать этот текст.

-

need

отсутствие необходимости (не надо, не нужно, незачем)

You needn’t do this exercise.

Тебе не нужно делать это упражнение.

You needn’t have done this exercise.

Тебе не надо было делать это упражнение.

You needn’t come here tomorrow.

Вам незачем приходить завтра.

9.7. Вставьте в пропуски глагол should или правильную форму глагола have to.

1. Nurses ___________ to give people injections.

2. You ___________ eat more fruit and vegetables.

3. ___________ you ___________ travel abroad in your job?

4. Tom is ill, he ___________ see his doctor.

5. I’m sorry I couldn’t come to your party. I ___________ work late.

6. You ___________ try to phone your father this weekend.

7. I hope you don’t ___________ go home early.

8. Mike is a teacher. He ___________ teach different kinds of students.

9. I think Patrick ___________ be more polite to his sister!

10. He ignores me. What ___________ I do?

9.8. Вставьте в пропуски глаголы must, mustn't или needn't.

1. You ___________ tidy your room every day.

2. All passengers ___________ wear seat belts during take off.

3. You ___________ wash the windows and you ___________ dust the furniture either. I’ve already done that.

4. Children ___________ touch matches.

5. You are much better and you ___________ stay in hospital any longer.

6. You ___________ buy this book. I can give it to you.

7. You ___________ smoke if you want to be healthy.

8. You ___________ remember to take your medicine every four hours.

9. You ___________ have any visitors if you don’t want to.

10. You ___________ leave hospital until the nurse gives you all your medicine.

9.9. Прочитайте текст и вставьте слова из рамки в пропуски.

can(2)

may

must

should ought

have

had

be able

needn’t

Laptop computers are small personal computers that (1) ___________ be used on the move. Before buying a laptop, you (2) ___________ consider different tasks that you are going to use your computer for. Today there are more laptops sold in the PC market than desktop computers so they (3) ___________ have their advantages over traditional PCs. For example, most laptops today have an inbuilt TV tuner which (4) ___________ catch signals from satellite TV. However, not all vendors provide for an inbuilt TV tuner card. So you will (5) ___________ to buy it if you want to watch TV through your laptop. Another advantage is that your laptop computer will (6) ___________ to access the Internet with a wireless connection. Having a laptop also implies that you will want to transport it. For this reason you (7) ___________ to buy a suitable bag for it. In the past, if you wanted to buy a powerful computer with advanced features, you (8) ___________ to pay quite a lot of money. Today you (9) ___________ worry because buying a modern laptop won’t break the bank. You (10) ___________ also choose to pay in instalments to break down the price.





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