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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018

Раздел ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Задания 19-25

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ

Глагол: пассивный залог

Активный залог употребляется, когда подлежащее само производит действие:

Он написал это письмо вчера. (Past Simple — активный залог).

He wrote this letter yesterday.

Пассивный залог употребляется, когда действие производится над подлежащим. Обычно нам неизвестно или неважно, кто произвел действие. Главное — результат действия. Время глагола в пассивном залоге определяется также, как и в активном залоге:

Это письмо было написано вчера. (Past Simple — Пассивный залог).

This letter was written yesterday.

Пассивный залог образуется по формуле: to be + V3

to be (глагол-помощник) ставится в нужное время по формулам активного залога;

V (смысловой глагол) всегда стоит в третьей форме.

Таблица времён пассивного залога

Present

Past

Future

Simple

am/is/are + V3

was/were + V3

will + be + V3

Continuous

am/is/are + being + V3

was/were + being + V3

will + be + V3

Perfect

have/has + been + V3

had + been + V3

will + have + been + V3

При образовании вопроса первый глагол помощник ставится перед подлежащим. При образовании отрицания not ставится после первого глагола помощника.

Активный и пассивный залог после модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов

Активный залог

Пассивный залог

can/could

may/might

must

have to + V

be to

should/ought to

can/could

may/might

must

have to + be + V3

be to

should/ought to

7.1. Пассивный залог. Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.

1. When the telephone (invent)?

2. The letter (not write) tomorrow.

3. English (speak) all over the world.

4. My dress is clean now. It (wash).

5. All the questions on the paper must (answer).

6. These houses (build) in the 16th century.

7. Rugby (play) since 1845.

8. Flowers usually (sell) in the streets.

9. This film (discuss) at the next lesson.

10. Your essay (write) yet?

11. I couldn’t use my hotel room because it (not clean) yet.

12. It was very dark. Nothing could (see).

13. What usually (make) from milk?

14. Wait a little! Your question (discuss) now.

15. The UK (wash) by the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea.

7.2. Прочитайте сообщение о происшествии и употребите правильную пассивную форму глагола в скобках.

Policeman shot dead in training

A police officer died in hospital after the incident, which took place in the warehouse in Thorp Road, about a mile from the city centre, at about 11.35. The officer (1) ________ (take) to North Manchester General Hospital, where he (2) ________ (pronounce) dead later.

The police sealed off the entrances to the site and the warehouse (3) ________ (cordon) off with yellow tape. However, forensic officers could (4) ________ (see) in the yard outside the warehouse. An ambulance was also on site. It was not immediately clear whether the officer (5) ________ (shoot) accidentally by one of his own colleagues. A police spokesman said the training exercise (6) ________ (hold) in a ‘reasonably routine’ way.

The area where the incident happened is the site of a disused former electronics factory, which (7) ________ (know) locally as the Sharp Building. The factory (8) ________ (surround) by other industrial units and wasteland.

The Independent Police Complaints Commission (9) ________ (notify) about the fatal shooting and three investigators (10) ________ (already/send) to the scene to carry out an initial assessment.

7.3. Пассивный или активный залог? Употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.

1. The computer (use) at the moment.

2. Your house looks different. You (paint) it?

3. Water (cover) most of the Earth’s surface.

4. Most of the Earth’s surface (cover) by water.

5. When we got to the stadium, we found that the game (cancel).

6. The park gates (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.

7. The letter (post) a week ago and it (arrive) yesterday.

8. At 10 o’clock tomorrow, Ann will be in her office. She (work) then.

9. Ron’s parents (die) when he was very young. He and his sister (bring up) by their grandparents.

10. While I was on holiday, my camera (steal) from my hotel room.

7.4. Пассивный или активный залог? Прочитайте текст радиопередачи о системе социального благополучия в Америке и употребите правильную форму глагола в скобках.

The public welfare system in America

Hello and welcome to US Radio Online! Our today’s programme is devoted to public welfare system. We can say that the majority of Americans — about 85 percent — are neither wealthy nor poor. They (1) ________ (belong) to the broad economic category considered to be ‘middle class’. But they (2) ________ (trouble) by the fact that poverty (3) ________ (exist) in their land. Our country (4) ________ (know) for its wealth, its abundance of food and its opportunity for everybody to have a good life. The goal is to operate a free enterprise economy in which everyone who (5) ________ (want) to work can find it. Despite that goal, there is always a percentage of people who want to work but who cannot find employment for which they (6) ________ (suit). In recent years, the official figure for unemployment (7) ________ (average) between five and seven percent.

The public welfare system in the USA is so large that in the early and mid-1980s nearly one half of all money spent by the federal government (8) ________ (be) for ‘social payments’ — money used to help people. The percentage (9) ________ (double) since the 1960s, when only about 25 percent of the money spent by the federal government (10) ________ (support) these welfare needs.

In addition to federal programs, there are programs in each of the 50 states which (11) ________ (design) to help people in need. Some people believe that increased direct expenditure by the federal government is the best means to eliminate poverty. Others say the welfare system (12) ________ (not reward) individual initiative — it (13) ________ (encourage) people to stay unemployed and spend rather than save money. All of the studies and the arguments about poverty and public welfare programs show that Americans (14) ________ (concern) about the problem that (15) ________ (not solve) yet.





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