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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018

Раздел ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Задания 19-25

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ

Числительные

Количественные числительные

Количественные числительные

1 — one

11 — eleven

10 — ten

2 — two

12 — twelve

20 — twenty

3 — three

13 — thirteen

30 — thirty

4 — four

14 — fourteen

40 — forty

5 — five

15 — fifteen

50 — fifty

6 — six

16 — sixteen

60 — sixty

7 — seven

17 — seventeen

70 — seventy

8 — eight

18 — eighteen

80 — eighty

9 — nine

19 — nineteen

90 — ninety

10 — ten

20 — twenty

100 — one hundred

101 — one hundred and one

1000 — one thousand

210 — two hundred and ten

5 000 000 — five million

Примечание: Перед существительным не ставится артикль, если за ним следует количественное числительное:

The address is given on page 15.

You should do exercise 26.

Порядковые числительные

Порядковые числительные (the)

1st — first

11th — eleventh

10th — tenth

2nd — second

12th — twelfth

20th — twentieth

3rd — third

13th — thirteenth

30th — thirtieth

4th — fourth

14th — fourteenth

40th — fortieth

5th — fifth

15th — fifteenth

50th — fiftieth

6th — sixth

16th — sixteenth

60th — sixtieth

7th — seventh

17th — seventeenth

70th — seventieth

8th — eighth

18th — eighteenth

80th — eightieth

9th — ninth

19th — nineteenth

90th — ninetieth

10th — tenth

20th — twentieth

100th— hundredth

101st — hundred and first

1000th — thousandth

3.1. Вставьте порядковые числительные и запишите их словами.

1. This is page 1. This is the _______ page.

2. This is flat 5. This is the _______ flat.

3. Where is chapter 10? Where is the _______ chapter?

4. He doesn’t remember page 20. He doesn’t remember the _______ page.

5. Book 2 is about travelling. The _______ book is about travelling.

6. He doesn’t understand lesson 9. He doesn’t understand the _______ lesson.

7. What picture is on page 21? What picture is on the _______ page?

8. She lives on floor 11. She lives on the _______ floor.

9. Let’s talk about chapter 8. Let’s talk about the _______ chapter.

10. What is the date on page 12? What is the date on the _______ page?

Прилагательные

Образование степеней сравнения прилагательных

Группы прилагательных

Степени сравнения прилагательных

Положительная

Сравнительная

Превосходная

Односложные и некоторые двусложные прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -у

прилагательное

прилагательное + -er

(the) прилагательное + -est

cheap

cheaper

(the) cheapest

Если прилагательное оканчивается на согласную, перед которой стоит одна ударная гласная, то согласная удваивается:

big

bigger

(the) biggest

Буква -y- после согласной на конце слова изменяется на -i-:

happy

happier

(the) happiest

Непроизносимая буква -e на конце отбрасывается:

nice

nicer

(the) nicest

Остальные двусложные и многосложные прилагательные

прилагательное

more + прилагательное

(the) most + прилагательное

expensive

serious

correct

more expensive

more serious

more correct

(the) most expensive

(the) most serious

(the) most correct

Исключения

good

bad

many/much

little

better

worse

more

less

(the) best

(the) worst

(the) most

(the) least

far

farther/further farther — дальше (по расстоянию);

further — дальнейший, дополнительный

(the) farthest/(the) furthest

farthest — самый далекий (по расстоянию);

furthest — самый отдаленный (по времени и по расстоянию)

old

older/elder older — старше;

elder — старший (о членах семьи) (пример: мой старший брат)

(the) oldest/(the) eldest

oldest — самый старый/старший;

eldest — самый старший (о членах семьи)

late

later

(the) latest/

(the) last

latest — самый последний (=новейший) (пример: самые последние (свежие) новости);

last — последний (по порядку), больше уже не будет (пример: последний поезд)

Употребление степеней сравнения прилагательных

Степень прилагательного

Употребляется с выражениями

Примеры

Положительная

as... as — такой же как

not so (as)... as — не такой... как

Tom is as tall as Mike.

Bill is not so tall as Mike

Сравнительная

than — чем

the... , the... — чем..., тем...

even — даже

для выражения меняющейся ситуации

its getting... — становится...

Sam is taller than Mike.

The sooner, the better.

That test was not easy.

This one is even more difficult.

In autumn, the days are getting shorter and shorter.

Превосходная

in my class — в классе

in Russia — в России

in the world — в мире

of all — из всех

I have ever seen — который я когда-либо видел

I have ever read — которую я когда-либо читал

Перед прилагательным в превосходной степени обычно употребляется определенный артикль the.

Sam is the tallest boy in my class.

Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

He is the smartest of all my friends.

This is the most boring film I’ve ever seen.

This is the best book I’ve ever read.

4.1. Напишите две степени сравнения следующих прилагательных.

1. cold

2. big

3. wonderful

4. happy

5. good

6. comfortable

7. easy

8. fat

9. bad

10. nice

11. new

12. expensive

13. hungry

14. hot

15. little

4.2. Напишите две степени сравнения следующих прилагательных.

1. cheap

2. far

3. hot

4. cheerful

5. pretty

6. red

7. noisy

8. terrible

9. late

10. bad

11. difficult

12. few

13. old

14. sleepy

15. thin

4.3. Употребите правильную форму прилагательного в скобках.

1. Your English is improving. It’s getting (good) and (good).

2. Who is the (famous) person in the world?

3. The meal cost (little) than I expected.

4. There are (few) public holidays in Great Britain than in other European countries.

5. This cartoon is (funny) than that one.

6. Who is the (good) student in the class?

7. It was an awful day. It was the (bad) day of my life.

8. Jane is two years (old) than Jack.

9. It is the (busy) time of the year.

10. I’d like to have а (big) car than my old one.

11. That’s the (far) I’ve ever run.

12. The exam was quite difficult — (difficult) than we expected.

13. Hard beds are (healthy) than soft ones.

14. She is the (slim) girl in our group.

15. What is the (late) news?

4.4. Употребите правильную форму прилагательного в скобках.

1. These cakes are probably (good) in the world.

2. I am (happy) than I have ever been.

3. The game will certainly be much (exciting) than it was last year.

4. For (far) information, please write to the above address.

5. I get on well with my (old) brother.

6. He did very badly in the exam — (bad) than I had expected.

7. He was (fat) man I had ever met.

8. This is (attractive) room in the whole house.

9. Our new house is (big) than the one we used to live in.

10. Jill can run as (fast) as Jack.

11. My brother has (much) money than I have.

12. This is (bad) weather so far this year.

13. Tom is (reserved) boy in this class.

14. Summer is (dry) period of the year.

15. ‘What time shall we leave? ’ ‘The (soon), the (good).’

4.5. Прочитайте текст и преобразуйте прилагательные, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

A lot of people travel nowadays. It’s not surprising because distances between countries are becoming (1) _________ due to the development of transport. The main forms of public transport are buses, trains, ships and aeroplanes. Each of them has its pros and cons.

Of course, air travel is (2)_ _________ than other means of transport. However, flying often involves delays and cancellations. You often spend (3) _________ time getting to and from the airport than actually flying. Besides, air travel is the (4) _________ form of modern transport. It could be said that flying is (5) _________ than other forms of public transport if you have to visit another country or continent. In other cases, it is (6) _________ to go by train.

Travelling by train is one of the (7) _________ means of travelling. First of all, it’s (8) _________ than travelling by air. Besides, modern trains are (9) _________ than in the past.

In my opinion, the (10) _________ way of travelling is travelling by ship, which is very exciting. If the weather is fine, you can relax on the large sun deck and enjoy the panoramic view of the sea.

SHORT

FAST

MUCH

EXPENSIVE

EFFICIENT

PRACTICAL

POPULAR

CHEAP

COMFORTABLE

GOOD

4.6. Прочитайте текст и преобразуйте прилагательные, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

Lots of people travel to New York because it is the (1) _________ city in the US. Perhaps, with all its suburbs, it is the (2) _________ city in the world. Moreover, it is one of the (3) _________ industrial cities in the country. Another reason for travelling is its sights. Some of the (4) _________ historic buildings are situated there. Some of the buildings in New York City are (5) _________ buildings in the whole world.

Now New York includes five boroughs: Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn and Richmond. Manhattan is the (6) _________ in size but it is the heart and source of American policy. Perhaps, (7) _________ office buildings in the world are there.

The Bronx is a (8) _________ than industrial part of the city. Queens is both a residential and industrial area. New York’s two (9) _________ airports of all are both there. Brooklyn has (10) _________ people than any other part of the city — about 3,000,000. It is mostly a district of middle class people.

New York has the (11) _________ number of factories, the (12) _________ banks and corporations. It sends out many letters and receives the (13) _________ mail bags.

It is truly the (14) _________ business city.

New York is also called the cultural capital of the USA. There are a lot of museums in New York. One of the (15) _________ known is the Metropolitan Museum of Art. All in all, there are so many things to see in New York that it’s impossible to be bored there.

BIG

LARGE

IMPORTANT

OLD

HIGH

SMALL

EXPENSIVE

RESIDENTIAL

BUSY

MANY

GREAT

WEALTHY

HEAVY

FAMOUS

GOOD

Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ing/-ed

Прилагательное с окончанием -ing употребляется, когда оно характеризует лицо или предмет:

This book is rather interesting.

The football match was really exciting.

Прилагательное с окончанием -ed употребляется, когда оно характеризует чьё-либо воздействие на лицо или предмет:

I was interested by the book.

We were excited by the results of the match.

4.7. Выберите правильное слово.

1. I’m (interesting/interested) in collecting stamps.

2. Everyone is (depressed/depressing) by the awful weather.

3. I think that airports are (exciting/excited) places.

4. I’m (tired/tiring). I think I’ll go to bed.

5. The journey was (exhausted/exhausting)!

6. It’s not (surprising/surprised) that she’s busy. She’s got six children.

7. The teacher was (annoying/annoyed) because I had forgotten to do my homework.

8. He loved that museum — he thought it was (fascinating/fascinated).

9. We went to the cinema but I was very (boring/bored) because I had seen that film before.

10. I like this monkey. It is very (amused/amusing).

4.8. Выберите правильное слово.

1. I was so hurt when he said I was (boring/bored).

2. He works very hard. It’s not (surprising/surprised) that he is always tired.

3. We were (shocking/shocked) when we heard the news.

4. I didn’t find the situation funny. I was not (amusing/amused).

5. The journey was really (exciting/excited). I enjoyed it.

6. I am not keen on golf. When I played it, I was really (boring/bored).

7. She has really learnt very fast. She has made (astonishing/astonished) progress.

8. Tom is very good at telling funny stories. He can be very (amusing/amused).

9. When we heard the news, we didn’t know what to do. The news was (shocking/shocked).

10. The weather forecast was (terrifying/terrified). The (worrying/worried) authorities cancelled the match.





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