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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК - Новый полный справочник для подготовки к ЕГЭ - 2018

Раздел ГРАММАТИКА И ЛЕКСИКА

Задания 19-25

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ

Местоимения

Личные местоимения

Именительный падеж

Косвенный падеж

Перед глаголом в роли подлежащего

После глагола в роли дополнения

I — я

me — меня, мне, мной

you — ты

you — тебя, тебе, тобой

he — он

him — его, ему, им, (о) нём

she — она

her — её, ей, (о) ней

it — он, она, оно

it — его, её, ему, ей

(о вещах и животных)

(о вещах и животных)

we — мы

us — нас, нам, нами, (о) нас

you — вы

you — вас, вам, вами, (о) вас

they — они

them — их, им, ими, (о) них

Притяжательные местоимения

Притяжательные местоимения в русском языке (чей?)

Притяжательные прилагательные

Притяжательные местоимения

За которым следует существительное

Без последующего существительного

мой

my

mine

твой

your

yours

его

his

his

её

her

hers

его, её (не про людей)

its

наш

our

ours

ваш

your

yours

их

their

theirs

Пример

This is my pen.

This pen is mine.

Возвратные местоимения

Личные местоимения

Возвратные местоимения

(сам, сама, себя, -ся)

Примеры

I

myself

I can do that myself.

you

yourself

Don’t make a fool of yourself.

he

himself

He cut himself shaving.

she

herself

She decorated the cake herself.

it

itself

The cat licked itself all over.

we

ourselves

We promised ourselves a good holiday this year.

you

yourselves

You’ll have to fill out the forms yourselves.

they

themselves

Did they enjoy themselves at the theatre?

Примечание: Не употребляйте возвратные местоимения после глаголов wash, shave, feel, dress, complain, meet, relax, rest, concentrate. В некоторых случаях после глаголов wash и dress можно употреблять возвратные местоимения, если вы говорите о детях или животных.

Указательные местоимения

Указательные местоимения

This (этот, эта, это — единственное число).

These (эти — множественное число).

This/these используются: для обозначения людей и вещей, расположенных рядом с нами, настоящих и будущих ситуаций, а также для представления людей при разговоре по телефону

That (тот, та, то — единственное число).

Those (те — множественное число )

That/those используются: для обозначения людей и вещей, расположенных не рядом с нами, описания ситуаций в прошлом, для ссылки на упомянутую ранее информацию, а также при разговоре по телефону, чтобы спросить, кто звонит

Вопросительные местоимения/прилагательные/наречия

Вопросительное слово

Перевод

Примеры

Who

Кто

Who has read this book?

Who went to the cinema yesterday?

Who...

(+ предлог)

местоимение «Кто» в косвенных падежах (неформальный стиль)

Who did you call yesterday?

Who are you waiting for?

Who do you work with?

Whom

местоимение «Кто» в косвенных падежах (формальный стиль)

Whom did you meet there?

Whom did you help?

What

Что

What has happened?

What do you mean?

Какой

What colour do you like?

What languages do you speak?

What kind of music do you enjoy?

What ... + предлог

местоимение «Что» в косвенных падежах

What are you interested in?

What are you thinking about?

Which

Какой, который (выбор из ограниченного числа)

Which suit will you take, black or white?

Which way did they go?

Which car is yours?

Which of

Кто из Какой из

Which of us will do it?

Which of these books do you need?

Whose

Чей

Whose bag is this?

Where

Где

Куда

Where is my book?

Where did you go yesterday?

Where, from

Откуда

Where are you from?

When

Когда

When is your birthday?

Why

Почему

Why did you do that?

How

Как

How did you do that?

How many

Сколько (с исчисляемыми существительными)

How many friends have you got?

How many pupils are there in you group?

How much

Сколько (с неисчисляемыми существительными)

How much ice cream did you eat yesterday?

How old

Сколько лет

How old are you?

Относительные местоимения/наречия

Относительноеместоимение/наречие

Перевод/употребление

Примеры

who

который (для людей)

There’s the man who stole my bag!

whom

«который» в косвенных падежах (для людей в формальном стиле и после предлогов)

All students whom the Headmistress has invited must come at 5 p.m.

That’s the man to whom I gave the money.

which

который (для вещей)

Have you got the book which I lent you?

that

который (для людей, вещей, времени и места)

This is the bike that I got for my birthday.

The school that my mum went to was very traditional.

whose

чей (для принадлежности)

Tony, whose father is a lawyer, is in trouble with the police.

when

когда (для времени)

I remember the day when the war began.

where

где (для места)

The resort where we spent our holidays was great!

why

почему (для причины)

That’s the reason why he’s always late.

Местоимения some, any, no, every и их производные

Тип предложения

Какой?

Кто?

Что?

Где?

Утвердительное

some (какой-то, несколько, немного)

any (любой)

someone/somebody (кто-то)

anyone/ anybody (любой, кто угодно)

something (что-то)

anything (любая вещь, что угодно)

somewhere (где-то)

anywhere (везде, где угодно)

Вопросительное

any (какой-нибудь)

some (несколько, немного — в просьбах и предложениях)

anyone/anybody (кто-нибудь)

anything (что-нибудь)

anywhere (где-нибудь)

Отрицательное

no/not any (никакой)

no one/not anyone

nobody/not

anybody (никто)

nothing/not anything (ничто, ничего)

nowhere/ not anywhere (нигде)

Все типы

every (каждый)

everybody/everyone (все)

everything (всё)

everywhere (везде, повсюду)

2.1. Вставьте личные местоимения.

1. Who is that woman? Why are you looking at _______?

2. Do you know that man? I work with _______.

3. I’m talking to you. Please listen to _______.

4. These books are interesting. Do you want to have a look at _______?

5. He likes that camera. He’s going to buy _______.

6. Where are the tickets? I can’t find _______.

7. We’re going out. You can go with _______.

8. I don’t like dogs. I’m afraid of _______.

9. Where is he? I want to talk to _______.

10. These plums are bad. Don’t eat _______.

2.2. Вставьте притяжательные прилагательные или притяжательные местоимения.

1. This book belongs to me. This is _______ book.

2. She took out _______ purse and gave it to me.

3. My husband never wears _______ glasses.

4. This is their car. The other car is _______ too.

5. May I introduce to you one of _______ colleagues?

6. There were a lot of people coming back from _______ work.

7. Every country has _______ own customs and traditions.

8. He cut _______ finger this evening.

9. Lend me _______ pen, I’ve lost _______.

10. They’re going to London with some students of _______.

11. This is not my pencil, _______ is red.

12. I haven’t got a pen. Can you give me _______?

13. Take off _______ coat, please.

14. We went on holiday with some friends of _______.

15. Ann is married. _______ husband works in a bank.

2.3. Вставьте возвратные местоимения.

1. She was very pleased with _______ when she got such a good job.

2. The winner looked very proud of _______.

3. She brought up her children by _______.

4. The cat is washing _______.

5. The children enjoyed _______ when they visited Disneyland.

6. She decided to do all the cooking _______.

7. He was asked to behave _______ at school.

8. Cats are very clean animals: they are always washing _______.

9. Doctors advised us that we have to exercise regularly in order to keep _______ healthy.

10. In _______ your problem is nothing to worry about.

11. She loves looking at _______ in the mirror.

12. If you don’t behave _______, I shall put you all to bed early.

13. I don’t feel _______ today. I don’t know what’s wrong with me.

14. The teacher tried to make _______ understood but she failed to get the class to understand.

15. We painted the room _______.

2.4. Прочитайте письмо и преобразуйте местоимения, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните пропуски полученными словами.

Dear Sally,

Thank you for the prompt reply. It was great to hear from you again. I’m fine and I hope that you and (1) _______ parents are fine too.

In this letter you ask me if anybody helps me with (2) _______ homework. I’ve got a brother, but he thinks only about (3) _______. My friend Jenny has got a brother too and he always helps Jenny with (4) _______ homework. And she helps Mark to clean (5) _______ room. That’s great when brothers and sisters help each other.

Well, we do a lot of homework because (6) _______ teachers are very strict and they want (7) _______ to work hard. My parents think it is okay to have a lot of homework. However, Jenny’s parents say that she needs some free time so that she can play with (8) _______ friends. They meet together every evening, go to the park and enjoy (9) _______. So what can I do?

Anyway, thank you for (10) _______ photo. I think you look so sweet.

Bye. I hope to hear from you soon.

Love,

Ann

YOU

I

HE

SHE

HE

WE

WE

SHE

THEY

YOU

2.5. Вставьте указательные местоимения.

1. I never forget my holiday in London. _______ was the holiday of a lifetime.

2. What are you doing _______ Sunday?

3. Didn’t you just love _______ striped trousers in the shop we just passed?

4. Mmm! _______ is the best cake I’ve ever tasted!

5. Do you see _______ boy over there? He’s my cousin.

6. Hello, _______ is Mr Cook. Can I speak to Mr Brown, please?

7. ‘Guess what! I’m going to London!’ ‘Congratulations. _______ is fantastic!’

8. _______ were the days when we used to dance every night.

9. ‘_______ belonged to my grandmother,’ said David as he slipped the ring onto Jane’s finger.

10. Don’t you think _______ jeans suit me?

11. _______ records you threw out were my original hits from the seventies!

12. ‘_______ bike needs repairing.’ ‘_______ is what I was trying to tell you.’

13. What do you think of _______ dress Ann was wearing last night?

14. What’s _______ you’re reading?

15. _______ boys over there are my sons.

2.6. Вставьте местоимения some, any, no или every.

1. I’m sorry but there are _______ cookies left.

2. Have you got _______ idea what time it is?

3. I can’t talk to you now. I’ve got _______ time.

4. Could you give me _______ examples?

5. I see him at work almost _______ day.

6. Everything was correct. There were _______ mistakes.

7. Take _______ book you like. I don’t mind.

8. There were _______ tomatoes left but there were _______ cucumbers.

9. _______ country has a national flag.

10. Unfortunately, I have _______ cash. Can I pay by card?

2.7. Вставьте местоимения some, any, no, every или их производные.

1. I’m afraid there isn’t _______ coffee left.

2. Is there _______ here who speaks Italian?

3. You should go and buy _______ food. We have _______ to eat.

4. Would you like _______ juice?

5. She put her bag _______ and now she can’t find it.

6. Haven’t you got _______ friends in London?

7. We had to walk home because there was _______ bus.

8. Does _______ want a cup of tea?

9. I’ve looked _______ for my passport, but I can’t find it _______.

10. Come and have supper with us if you aren’t doing _______ tonight.

11. Jane is getting married to _______ she met on holiday.

12. Tommy is so nice. _______ likes him.

13. I don’t know _______ about economics.

14. The accident looked serious but fortunately _______ was injured.

15. I am hungry. I want _______ to eat.





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