Ключи к упражнениям учебника - Приложения

Английский язык - Книга для учителя 8 класс О. В. Афанасьева - 2015 год

Ключи к упражнениям учебника - Приложения

Unit 1

Exercise 4

1. e; 2. b; 3. a; 4. d; 5. c

Exercise 5

cowboy, shop assistant, police officer, headmaster, schoolmaster, schoolmistress, headmistress, congressman, congresswoman, greengrocer, lawmaker, dressmaker, customs officer

Exercise 6

1. announcer

2. banker

3. butcher

4. conductor

5. decorator

6. designer

7. director

8. doctor

9. explorer

10. grocer

11. lawyer

12. officer

13. sailor

14. senator

15. usher

Exercise 7

1. accountant

2. shop assistant (salesman)

3. barber

4. fireman

5. novelist (writer)

6. sailor (seaman)

7. announcer

8. baker

9. dentist

10. chemist

Exercise 8

militiaman, policeman, postman, milkman, salesman, fireman, weatherman, seaman, cameraman, fisherman, etc.

Exercise 9

1. c; 2. b; 3. c; 4. c; 5. a; 6. a; 7. c; 8. a; 9. c

Exercise 10

A. 1. f; 2. d; 3. e; 4. c; 5. b; 6. a; 7. i; 8. h; 9. g

B. a) фотограф; b) зубной врач (дантист); с) парикмахер; d) автомеханик; е) работник туристического агентства; f) пожарная команда (пожарные); g) художник по оформлению интерьеров; h) настройщик пианино; i) окулист

Exercise 12

1. If I were a plumber, I would/should put in and mend water pipes and other equipment.

2. If I were a barber, I would/should cut men’s hair.

3. If I were a receptionist, I would/should welcome visitors to an office or to a hotel.

4. If I were a chemist, I would/should make and sell medicines.

5. If I were an interior decorator, I would/should decorate (the interior of) houses, flats and offices.

6. If I were a piano tuner, I would/should tune pianos and grand pianos.

7. If I were an estate agent, I would/should buy and sell houses, flats and offices.

8. If I were a travel agent, I would/should plan people’s holidays and journeys.

9. If I were an optician, I would/should make glasses and contact lenses.

10. If I were a hairdresser, I would/should cut and arrange people’s hair.

Exercise 13

A. 1. had, would work; 2. didn’t have, would be; 3. did not know, would not be; 4. were, could; 5. sent, would answer; 6. stayed; 7. had; 8. wanted; 9. did not rain, could; 10. could

B. 1. was having; 2. were; 3. was squeezing; 4. lay; 5. was sitting; 6. could

Exercise 14

1. If Ann became a hairdresser, I would be very happy. 2. I wish it were not autumn now. I wish it were summer or winter and we had holidays. 3. If it were not so cold today, John could walk in the park longer. 4. If Masha knew French better, she would take part in the French Olympiad. 5. “Willy,” said Alice, “if I were you, I would get up, make my bed, and lay the table for breakfast.” 6. If Dr Johnson had a good reputation, he could have many more patients. 7. I wish Emma were not ill. She could help us then. 8. If (only) the little page were a magician! 9. “If I wanted (to), I would turn you into a frog or a spider,” said the wicked witch. 10. I wish he could come.

Exercise 16

A. The text doesn’t mention: e) who killed the presidents; f) how secret agents are selected; h) how much money secret agents get.

B. 1 c; 2. b

Exercise 17

1. Who was the first American president to have been killed? 2. When was James Garfield assassinated? 3. What do Secret Service guards (tend to) look like? 4. Are there any women in the Secret Service? 5. What do prospective agents learn to do in the course of training? 6. In what case (When) can Secret Service agents veto a visit in a certain area? 7. Why did they prepare escape in an armoured limousine? (a sample question) 8. Where did a problem arise on President Bush’s trip? 9. Do bodyguards have to go abroad as part of their job? 10. Why are there so many books and films about the Secret Service agents?

Exercise 18 (Sample version)

2. — The History of President Assassination in the US.

3. — Bodyguards and Some Specific Features of Their Job.

4. — Bodyguards’ Training and Their Duties.

5. — People Protected by the Secret Service.

Exercise 21

A. 1. d; 2. c; 3. e; 4. a; 5. b

B. 1. The Koons family — Kathy, Jennifer and Allison Koons. 2. They live in the USA, in Florida. 3. Yes, there are. There is a club Miniature World in the neighbourhood. 4. It was the mother, Kathy Koons. 5. Kathy is a schoolteacher of German and Geometry.

Exercise 22

1. a woman; 2. the journalist has interviewed the Koons; 3. together; 4. to plan a miniature house; 5. can be moved; 6. offers advice and organizes competitions; 7. use all the materials they can find; 8. teach

Exercise 25

1. If (only) I had taken a typing course! If (only) I had married Captain Morris! If (only) I had had children later! If (only) I had travelled more! If (only) I had saved up money! If (only) I had bought a better house! If (only) I had learned to play the piano!

2. If (only) I hadn’t quarrelled with my friend Allison! If (only) I hadn’t married John Simpson! If (only) I hadn’t left London! If (only) I hadn’t sold the green Ford! If (only) I hadn’t stopped doing French! If (only) I hadn’t smoked when I was young! If (only) I hadn’t been impolite to my Mum!

Exercise 26

1. If I had known Ann’s telephone number! 2. If only the teacher hadn’t given us so much homework! 3. If Natasha hadn’t been so tired! 4. If the weather had been better on Sunday! 5. If only we had read more books! 6. If the shops had been open! 7. If my parents had been at home! 8. If only the school had had a basketball team! 9. If the actors had played better! 10. If we had had ice cream for dessert!

Exercise 27

If we had been in Britain last summer, we: would have visited the British Museum; would have had a trip to Scotland; would have made a tour around the British Isles; would have gone to Trafalgar Square; would have travelled to Wales; would have gone shopping in Oxford Street; would have seen a play in the National Theatre; would have had a meal in an English pub; would have played darts with our friends; would have watched British Television, etc.

Exercise 28 (Sample version)

If the summer had been warmer, I would have: 1. lain in the sun; 2. gone on a hike (camping); 3. gone boating; 4. painted outside; 5. worn shorts and a T-shirt.

If the summer had been warmer, I wouldn’t have: 6. watched TV so much; 7. fallen ill; 8. gone to the museums so often; 9. painted in the studio; 10. worn jeans and sweaters.

Exercise 29 (Sample version)

1. If Peter had known English better when he was a student, he would have worked as an interpreter. 2. If the book had been shorter, I would have finished it sooner, but I didn’t. 3. If I had had a pair of skis, I would have taken part in the competition last winter. 4. If my parents had given me a camera for my birthday, I would have taken pictures at the party, but they gave me a new football. 5. If there had been more good programmes on the radio, I would have listened to it last August at the seaside. 6. If my teacher hadn’t given me advice before the examination last week, I wouldn’t have known what to do. 7. If Mary hadn’t been a student, she would have had more free time when she was 20. 8. If Sam hadn’t been ill that day, he would have come to my party. 9. If I had known more about Australia last year, I would have made a report about it.

Exercise 30

1. b; 2. c; 3. a

Exercise 31

1. My cousin is 1.75 metres tall. If she were shorter, she would have become a ballet dancer. 2. If Uncle Andrew had been shorter in his youth, he would have become a pilot. 3. If Lucy had lived on the coast (at the seaside), she would have learnt to swim. 4. If you had stopped, you wouldn’t have got into a road accident. 5. If it were spring, the leaves on the trees would be green. 6. If it had been spring when we arrived in London, the leaves on the trees would have been green. 7. If my father earned more money, he would buy me a computer. 8. If my aunt had bought theatre tickets, we would have watched the musical “Cats”. 9. If you had learned the rule, you wouldn’t have made such a bad mistake. 10. You didn’t ask me to post the letter yesterday. If you had asked me to go to the post office yesterday, I would have done it.

Exercise 34

A. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. d

Exercise 35

1. in; 2. over; 3. over; 4. down; 5. out; 6. in; 7. in; 8. over

Exercise 36

1. This legend has been handed down from generation to generation in our family. 2. Don’t play with my watch, hand it over to me. 3. Let’s hand out the maps to all the members of the expedition. 4. Where did you get this ring from? — It has been handed down in my family from mother to daughter. 5. The thief was (has been) handed over to the police. 6. Please hand in your tests at the end of the examination. 7. Tomorrow the Queen will be handing (hand) out presents in the children’s hospital. 8. Don’t hand in your compositions, I’ll collect them tomorrow. 9. Finally (In the end) she had to hand the farm over to the new owners.

Exercise 39

1. a flavour; 2. smart; 3. terrific; 4. harm; 5. the top; 6. rotten; 7. silly; 8. jealous; 9. advanced; 10. to show off; 11. a cheat; 12. to creep; 13. to fix; 14. to take care of something; 15. to mind something

Exercise 40

1. harm; 2. rotten; 3. flavour; 4. cheating; 5. top; 6. showed off; 7. care; 8. terrific; 9. jealous; 10. mind

Exercise 41 (Sample version)

A. terrific: music, person, show, film, idea

rotten: life, situation, place, leaves, vegetables

silly: person, advice, question, answer, idea

dumb: person, thing, dog, story

smart: car, clothes, shoes, person

advanced: person, course, ideas, technology, studies

jealous: husband, wife, look, thoughts, child

B. fix: piece of furniture, bike, car, lamp, iron

care for: books, music, gardening, sport, person

take care of: sister or brother, plants, animals, patients

mind: one’s business, going somewhere, playing a game, watching a film

show off: one’ s knowledge, new clothes, a car, a toy, a bike

Exercise 43

1. In those days I was just a foolish, naive young man. 2. Do you mind my (me) closing the door? It is too noisy in the corridor. 3. The children crept upstairs trying not to wake their parents. 4. It won’t do you any harm to spend more time outdoors. 5. The teacher looked at Nick and he (the latter) hid his cheat sheet under the desk. 6. Whenever he does shopping, he always buys rotten vegetables and fruit. 7. When we were on a hike (camping), we made a dish with a very specific flavour. 8. Her marks in maths are never good, but she can’t care less. 9. Alice is always showing off! Isn’t that stupid/silly/foolish of her? 10. I think we’ve had a terrific journey around Australia. 11. It’s silly of you to behave like this at your age. 12. You took your father’s car without his permission. It was dangerous and very foolish.

Exercise 44

1. ... Clare has the walls in her room painted.

2. ... Clare has the grass in her garden cut.

3. ... Clare has them washed.

4. ... Clare has hers manicured.

5. ... Clare has flowers planted for her.

6. ... Clare has the roof of her garage mended.

7. ... Clare has her car repaired.

8. ... Clare has her car washed.

9. ... Clare has her house cleaned.

10. ... Clare has her meals cooked for her.

11. ... Clare has her house redecorated.

Exercise 47

A. It was Malcolm who did it.

B. c

Exercise 49

A. 1. g; 2. d; 3. h; 4. i; 5. a; 6. e; 7. f; 8. b; 9. c

B. 1. once and for all; 2. always tells the truth; 3. get rid of your old teddy bear; 4. stuff like that; 5. get into trouble; 6. for a fact; 7. walked off; 8. told her niece off; 9. give it a try

Exercise 50

1. He is a terrific speller. 2. He is a cheat. 3. He is an old fool. 4. It had (has) every flavour there is. 5. He should mind his own business. 6. They were (are) not true. 7. The secret was that Mr Peppi had special ice creams for making people happy, smart, etc.

Exercise 51

1. Malcolm’s classmates; 2. his ability to spell; 3. himself; 4. his classmates; 5. Mr Peppi’s van; 6. Malcolm (himself); 7. Mr Peppi; 8. Mr Peppi; 9. ice cream; 10. scratch

Exercise 53 (Sample version)

1. Because their results were not so good as his own. 2. Because he could spell at the age of three. 3. Because he boasted of his good results. 4. Because he had no respect for them. 5. Because Jerome had never been so good before. 6. Because Malcolm didn’t want to stand in the queue and tried to push in. 7. Because Malcolm was angry with Mr Peppi. 8. Because he was sorry for Malcolm and ashamed of him. 9. Because Mr Peppi was soft-hearted. 10. Because he was jealous of those whom Mr Peppi helped. 11. Because he wanted to be the best of the best. 12. Because Malcolm hadn’t become smart but the other way round — he had lost his talents and knowledge.

Exercise 54

A. The statements No. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 are true.

Exercise 59

1. career; 2. job; 3. occupation; 4. profession

Exercise 60 (Sample version)

1. police officer, fireman, air host(ess)

2. architect, chemist, dentist, doctor (children’s doctor, surgeon, physician), journalist, lawyer, physicist, editor, engineer, teacher, secondary school teacher

3. automechanic, carpenter, chef, surgeon, machine operator, photographer, physicist, police officer, programmer, electrician, fireman, vet

4. air hostess, children’s doctor, librarian, fashion model, nurse, hairdresser, receptionist, secretary, teacher

5. lawyer, journalist, fashion designer

6. carpenter, nurse

7. accountant, automechanic, dentist, designer, lawyer, fashion model, programmer, estate agent, fashion designer

8. carpenter, doctor, teacher, librarian, nurse, machine operator, police officer, electrician, engineer, vet (but this situation may change in future)

Exercise 61 (Sample version)

1. This is a camera. It is usually associated with the job of a photographer. A photographer is a person who is skilled at making photographs.

2. These are scissors and a hair dryer. They are usually associated with the job of a hairdresser or a barber. A hairdresser is a person who cuts and arranges hair.

3. This is a plane. It is usually associated with the job of a pilot and an air host(ess). A pilot is a person who flies planes and an air host is a person who looks after passengers on a plane.

4. These are books. They are usually associated with the job of a librarian. A librarian is a person who is in charge of or helps to run a library.

5. These are dental instruments. They are associated with the job of a dentist. A dentist is a person who is professionally trained to treat teeth.

6. These are clothes. They are usually associated with the job of a dressmaker. A dressmaker is a person who makes clothes according to customer’s specific requests.

7. This is a computer. It is usually associated with the job of a computer programmer. A computer programmer is a person whose job is to programme computers.

8. This is a dictaphone. It is usually associated with the job of a journalist. A journalist is a person who writes for newspapers and magazines and makes TV and radio programmes.

9. This is a fire engine. It is associated with the job of a fireman. A fireman is a person who puts out fires.

10. These are maps and booklets. They are associated with the job of a travel agent. A travel agent is a person who arranges travels by buying tickets, booking hotel rooms, etc.

Exercise 62

1. a lawyer; 2. an estate agent; 3. a social worker; 4. a receptionist; 5. a vet; 6. an electrician; 7. an editor; 8. a chemist; 9. a pharmacist; 10. a travel agent

Exercise 63 (Sample version)

1. rewarding, challenging; 2. prestigious; 3. fulfilling, tiring; 4. dangerous; 5. exciting; 6. boring; 7. popular; 8. satisfying; 9. skilful

Exercise 64

1. b; 2. a; 3. c; 4. d

Exercise 67

1. a driver, a machine operator, a mechanic, etc.

2. a nurse, a social worker, a nursery school teacher

3. a librarian, a philologist, a secondary school teacher, a journalist

4. a photographer, an interior decorator, a designer

5. a vet

Unit 2

Exercise 1

1. b; 2. b; 3. c; 4. a; 5. c; 6. b; 7. c; 8. c; 9. a

Exercise 2

1. From 6—7 to 17—18. 2. Four years. 3. Russian, Maths (Arithmetic), Reading, Nature Studies, PE, Music, Handicraft and some others. 4. No, it isn’t. 5. Yes, they are, but not in every school. They can start either in the first/second form or in the fifth form. 6. They usually learn one foreign language but sometimes they can do two or three foreign languages. 7. They do, PE classes are a good example. Sometimes they also have Biology or Geography classes outdoors when they watch wildlife, learn to use compasses and maps. 8. In Russia primary schools are not divided into junior and infant schools. Primary and secondary schools are in one building. Classes usually begin at 8.30, and primary school pupils in Russia do not stay in school so long as they do in Britain. 9. In Russia the atmosphere in schools is rather formal.

Exercise 7

1. Король передал власть парламенту. 2. Учитель раздал книги, и учащиеся начали читать. 3. Обычай передавался из поколения в поколение, и наследники усадьбы всё ещё придерживаются его. 4. Сдавайте ваши анкеты, пожалуйста. 5. Капитану не хотелось передавать управление кораблём человеку, который был младше его. 6. “А сейчас, дети, сдавайте свои сочинения”, — сказал учитель. 7. Он с лёгкостью раздаёт советы. 8. У посольства студенты раздавали листовки всем, кто проходил мимо. 9. К счастью, кто-то сдал её сумочку в бюро находок.

Exercise 8

1. What a terrific dress! You look very smart today. 2. If I were you, I wouldn’t envy your friend’s success. If you wish, you can be at the top of your class too. 3. It gave her the creeps when she was thinking (thought) about the events of that day. 4. If you don’t fix the handle to the door, we won’t be able to open it. 5. I don’t like this new drink with an orange flavour (a flavour of oranges). 6. He says he means well but at the same time he is often smart with grown-ups, especially his parents. 7. I don’t like people who show off their knowledge. 8. Modern schools should use advanced technologies. 9. Do you mind me (my) taking another piece of this terrific cake? (Do you mind if I take ...) 10. If you cheat at the exam, it’ll do you only harm.

Exercise 9

1. — 2. She has her shopping done for her. 3. She has her clothes made for her. 4. — 5. She has her letters (papers) typed for her. 6. She has her children looked after (for her). 7. She has the plants in her garden taken care of. 8. She has her clothes ironed. 9. She has her car washed. 10. She has the windows cleaned.

Exercise 10 (Sample version)

1. ... your teacher wouldn’t have asked you to leave the classroom. 2. If I had had time, ... 3. If we had stayed at home, ... 4. ... they wouldn’t have stolen the keys. 5. ... we wouldn’t have gone to the museum. 6. If Peter had worked hard, ... 7. ... you would have won. 8. ... Robert would have asked her to dance with him. 9. ... he wouldn’t have changed the job. 10. ... I had been here ... 11. ... hadn’t been so strict ... 12. ... we had had computers ...

Exercise 11 (Sample version)

1. What would they have done if the weather had been better? 2. What would Mark have become if he hadn’t become a teacher? 3. When would they have finished the construction of the bridge if they had received the materials on time? 4. What would have happened if Alice had trained more? 5. What would they have done if they had had a camera? 6. What would John have done if the child hadn’t fallen asleep? 7. What would she have done if she had had time and money? 8. What kind of job would Ben have chosen if he had got a better education? 9. Where would Sam have stayed if he had known about the trip beforehand? 10. What would Jane have done if she had graduated from university?

Exercise 12

1. If Jane had bought ..., she would have baked ... 2. If Sally had been ..., she would have answered ... 3. If Pedro knew ..., he would speak ... 4. If they hadn’t arrived ..., they wouldn’t have gone ... 5. If I were you, ... I wouldn’t lie ... 6. If Bob hadn’t learnt ..., he wouldn’t have got ... 7. If David hadn’t cheated ..., he wouldn’t have been punished ... 8. If English were ..., I wouldn’t need ...

Exercise 13 (Sample version)

1. If I had got a better education, I would have become a professor. 2. If I had learnt to sing, I would have become a famous singer. 3. If I hadn’t lost so much money at casinos, I would have bought a Rolls-Royce. 4. If only I hadn’t put on so much weight, I would have married a very beautiful woman. 5. If I had left for the USA, I would have become a millionaire. 6. If I had friends in Scotland, I would have moved to Scotland. 7. If only I had gone in for sport when I was younger, I would have become a champion. 8. If I had been a better pupil at school, I would have gone to university.

Exercise 14

A. 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b; 6. b

B. A 4; B 7; C 3; D 8; E 6; F 9; G 1; H 2; extra — 5

Exercise 15

1. At the age of five. 2. No, not at all ... . 3. In state primary schools: infant schools and junior schools. In private or independent schools: preparatory schools. 4. Infant schools — at the age of seven. Junior schools — at the age of 11+. 5. Secondary schools are usually much larger than primary schools. 6. Five or seven years (if they go to the sixth form). 7. They are about eleven/twelve. 8. They are about sixteen. 9. It is in some areas, where there aren’t sixth form colleges. 10. Five years. 11. Comprehensive schools. 12. English, Maths, Sciences, Computer Studies, Arts, Crafts, etc. 13. To group together pupils of the same ability in a certain subject. 14. To stop the unfair practice of selection at the age of eleven. 15. Because a lot of public schools are known for their high academic standards and parents think that they are the best. 16. They are schools where children live as well as study.

Exercise 16

1. ... numbers, letters, colours and may begin to read and write. 2. Primary education ... 3. Compulsory ... 4. ... leave school or continue their education in the sixth form. 5. ... comprehensive schools ... 6. ... ability in each subject. 7. ... took an exam at the age of eleven, called “eleven-plus”. 8. ... was unfair on many children. 9. ... for the General Certificate of Secondary Education. 10. ... choose more practical courses, for example, engineering, typing, hairdressing.

Exercise 18

Yes, it is.

Exercise 19

1. b; 2. b (Saturday is voluntary); 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. c; 7. c; 8. a; 9. c; 10. a; 11. b; 12. a

Exercise 20

1. extra-curricular activities; 2. (the) staff; 3. a catchment area; 4. single figures; 5. Form Tutor; 6. a broad curriculum; 7. core subjects; 8. three options; 9. information technology; 10. lab; 11. Internet access; 12. a learning and teaching tool; 13. a graduate teacher; 14. setting; 15. an annual Prize Giving; 16. a report; 17. parents’ evening; 18. a system of aptitude diagnosis and career councelling; 19. first choice university; 20. close links; 21. based on common sense and reasonably relaxed; 22. tolerance and mutual respect; 23. bullying is treated very firmly; 24. a large number of applicants

Exercise 22

1. had gone; would be; 2. hadn’t had; wouldn’t have; 3. hadn’t followed; wouldn’t be; 4. hadn’t travelled; wouldn’t know; 5. hadn’t been encouraged; wouldn’t be; 6. hadn’t tried to learn to sing; would do

Exercise 23

1. If Johnny hadn’t watched a football match last night, he wouldn’t be so tired and sleepy now. 2. If I hadn’t visited my Granny at the weekend, I would know nothing about her decision. 3. If Rose had finished her report last Friday, she would begin a new project next Monday. 4. If Paul liked swimming, he would have gone to the swimming pool with us last summer. 5. Mary wouldn’t feel so miserable (unhappy) if her children had telephoned her yesterday to say happy birthday. 6. If little William hadn’t bathed in cold water, he would not be ill now. 7. I would play tennis with you if I had taken tennis lessons last autumn. 8. We wouldn’t have to water the garden if it had rained yesterday. 9. I would go to the party tomorrow if I had bought that lovely dress we saw in the shop yesterday. 10. If you had told me the truth earlier, I wouldn’t feel so stupid now.

Exercise 24

1. If he hadn’t spent all his money, he would be able to buy a ticket for the new film. 2. If we hadn’t missed our train, we wouldn’t be late for the conference. 3. If she hadn’t failed her exam in Maths, she wouldn’t have to take it again. 4. If they hadn’t told us the truth, we wouldn’t know what to do. 5. If the plane hadn’t arrived on time, we would have problems with our luggage. 6. If I hadn’t had any time for the picture gallery, we wouldn’t know anything about this modern artist. 7. If the party hadn’t been a success, they wouldn’t arrange another party. 8. If we hadn’t gone to Brighton, we wouldn’t look suntanned at all.

Exercise 26

1. Если бы не её замечание, они не пожаловались бы на шум. 2. Если бы не новая работа Тома (Если бы у Тома не было новой работы), он бы продолжил своё образование. 3. Если бы не мои родители, я не побывала бы в Париже. 4. Если бы не дождь, они бы пошли куда-нибудь. 5. Если бы не дедушкин слуховой аппарат, у него не было бы возможности узнавать новости (доступа к новостям). 6. Если бы не новый приятель Каролины, я бы так не волновался за неё. 7. Если бы не конференция, Филипп никогда бы не вернулся в родной город. I

Exercise 28

1. But for your sandwiches, we would have got very hungry during the excursion to (tour of) the Botanical Garden. 2. You would feel better but for your high temperature. 3. But for Mother’s telephone call, I would be very worried (worry a lot) now. 4. But for John’s silly joke, Lisa wouldn’t have cried after classes yesterday. 5. But for his dirty boots, Ted would have looked smart at the party yesterday. 6. But for your help, I would have never fixed this stupid shelf. 7. But for your cheat sheet, the teacher wouldn’t be angry with us now. 8. I would have believed him then but for his deceitful smile.

Exercise 29

1. c; 2. d; 3. b; 4. a

Exercise 30

1. The adverb is quickly, it says “how” and it modifies the verb. 2. ... always ... “how often/when” ... the verb. 3. ... here ... “where” ... the verb. 4. ... angrily ... “how” ... the verb. 5. ... yesterday ... “when” ... the verb. 6. ... sometimes ... “when” ... the verb. 7. ... inside ... “where” ... the verb. 8. ... silently ... “how” ... the verb. 9. ... nervously ... “how” ... the verb. 10. ... well, better ... “how” ... the verbs. 11. ... far ... “where” ... the verb. 12. ... far ... “where” ... the verb.

Exercise 31

When: finally, eventually, now, today

Where: down

How: accidentally, slowly, carefully, quickly, thoroughly, painstakingly, identically, previously, easily, historically, permanently

To what extent: highly, quite, rather, partially, very, somewhat, more, fairly

Exercise 32

carefully, carelessly, cleverly, wildly, badly, slowly, bravely, unusually, clearly, quickly, beautifully, brilliantly, loudly, patiently, correctly, foolishly, softly, quietly

Exercise 33

1. ... as it rained heavily. 2. ... multiplies big numbers wonderfully. 3. ... answered us dryly/drily. 4. ... cooks clumsily. 5. ... David does his new job happily. 6. ... smiled slyly/slily. 7. ... answered simply and clearly. 8. ... he smiled wryly? 9. ... are you moving so noisily? 10. We wholly agree with you.

Exercise 34

1. more brightly; 2. more completely; 3. latest; 4. highest; 5. louder; 6. most gracefully; 7. fastest; 8. heavier; 9. slowest; 10. more calmly

Exercise 35

The sentences No. 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12 are correct.

2. ... latest of his classmates. 4. ... more patiently than usual. 8. ... nearer to the school ... 9. ... most frequently of us all. 13. ... most peacefully. 14. ... earlier ... 15. ... fastest ...

Exercise 36

1. Could you drive more slowly/slower? 2. If we don’t walk faster, we’ll never arrive on time. 3. The train (has) arrived earlier than usual. 4. It rained heavily/hard for several hours. 5. My elder sister Jane helps mother most often/oftenest of all the family. 6. John arrived/came latest of all. I wished he had arrived earlier. 7. There were five boys in our team. Of these five athletes Tom jumped highest. 8. Of the three doctors Mrs Finch speaks to the nurses most patiently. 9. Our neighbour’s dog barks louder than ours. 10. My brother phones our Granny oftener/more often than I do. 11. Ann speaks French most fluently of all the pupils. 12. There is no fog this morning and we can see the road more clearly. 13. The two little boys fought more bravely/more courageously than you did. 14. He lives nearest of all to Hampton School.

Exercise 38 (Sample version)

1. I’m sorry, I couldn’t attend the class yesterday. 2. Could I have a copy, please? 3. How do you spell the word ...? 4. I’m sorry, I’m late. 5. Sorry, I didn’t quite hear what you said. 6. Sorry, I can’t find the place. 7. I’m sorry, I’ve left my book at home. 8. We’ve run out of chalk. May I fetch some chalk? 9. I’m afraid I can’t speak any louder, I seem to be losing my voice (I have a sore throat). 10. Shall I turn the lights off? Shall I draw the curtains? Shall I pull down the blinds? Shall I put up the screen? 11. Shall I leave the sentence on the board?

Exercise 39

1. Are we supposed to finish this off at home? 2. What question are we on? 3. I’m sorry, I couldn’t attend the class yesterday, I had an appointment with the doctor. 4. There’s a letter missing in the word “travelling”. 5. Could I have a copy, please? 6. I think, it’s my turn. 7. Sorry, I didn’t quite hear what you said. 8. I have overslept. 9. Could you explain (it) again, please? 10. Shall we write (copy) that down? 11. I’m sorry, I’m late. 12. Sorry, I can’t find the place. 13. There is one letter too many in the word “break”. 14. Is there a better way of saying this in English? 15. Sorry, I can’t see well from where I am. 16. May I change my seat? The sun is in my eyes. 17. Shall I read aloud? 18. I’m feeling (feel) a bit under the weather (bad). 19. Could you write this word up on the blackboard? 20. Am I next?/Is it my turn? 21. Does it sound good English to say ...? 22. May I go outside?

Exercise 40

1. down; 2. out; 3. into; 4. away; 5. down; 6. away; 7. out; 8. down; 9. into; 10. out

Exercise 41

1. to break into my house; 2. broke out; 3. has broken down; 4. to break away from the habit of smoking; 5. broke into laughter; 6. broke out; 7. broke down; 8. broke down

Exercise 45

1. f; 2. h; 3. a; 4. i; 5. b; 6. j; 7. c; 8. e; 9. d; 10. g; 11. k; 12. m; 13. l

Exercise 46

1. for; 2. on; 3. in; 4. at; 5. by; 6. on; 7. —; 8. in/—; 9. To; 10. about/of

Exercise 47

1. wizard; 2. vanished; 3. messing; 4. tickled; 5. solid; 6. mess; 7. rarely; 8. legendary; 9. force; 10. enrol; 11. queu(e)ing; 12. complicated; 13. surroundings; 14. dormitories; 15. relieved 11

Exercise 48

1. d; 2. e; 3. b; 4. k; 5. f; 6. i; 7. a; 8. h; 9. g; 10. j; 11. c

Exercise 49 (Sample version)

messy: places, food, jobs, people, activities; complicated: work, problems, tasks, questions, situations; rare: plants. species, animals, cases, events; solid: gold, rocks, food, marble, advice; squeaky: doors, floors, voices, shoes, gates

Exercise 50

1. made of solid gold; 2. witchcraft; 3. vanished; 4. warn; 5. solid; 6. complicated; 7. rarely; 8. enrol on; 9. queu(e)ing/queues; 10. was relieved

Exercise 51

1. I warned her not to go out alone (I warned her against going out alone). 2. The wizard waved his hand and the rabbit vanished (disappeared). 3. Do you like to be/being tickled? 4. He droned on about his “interesting” work and that irritated everybody. 5. Babies who are 2—3 months old can’t eat solid food. 6. This flower is rare in Britain. 7. Let it be a warning to you. 8. Where do witches and wizards live? 9. Let’s concentrate on the new text. 10. A new caretaker has appeared recently in our school. 11. He is one of those who always tries to jump the queue (He is a queue jumper). 12. He wanted to go to university and enrolled on a preparatory English course. 13. I think I’ll soon need solid advice. 14. The policemen forced the door and rushed into the house. 15. I hope you feel (are) relieved now. 16. Maggie grew up in the cosy surroundings of an old country house. 17. I don’t like the new sweater, it tickles. 18. The subject is too complicated to discuss it (to be discussed) with little ones. 19. A second later the car vanished from sight. 20. “I’m here,” someone said in a squeaky voice.

Exercise 52

A. 1. learning; 2. studying; 3. study; 4. learn; 5. learn/ study; 6. studying; 7. learnt; 8. learnt

B. 1. had made; 2. had poured; 3. was helping; 4. had put; 5. tasted; 6. was sitting; 7. would do

Exercise 53

B. 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b

Exercise 54

Hermione Granger was.

Exercise 55

A. 1. a; 2. b; 3. b; 4. a; 5. b; 6. b

B. 1. True. 2. False. 3. True. 4. False. 5. True. 6. True. 7. False. 8. False. 9. True. 10. True.

Exercise 56

A. 1. e; 2. f; 3. g; 4. a; 5. h; 6. d; 7. b; 8. i; 9. c; 10. j

B. 1. Старик нацарапал своё имя дрожащей рукой. 2. Каждый ученик в школе знал, что им грозят неприятности, если они не понравятся (придутся не по вкусу) мисс Транчбул. 3. Полли вышла из спальни на цыпочках и спустилась по лестнице. 4. Учительница велела ученикам продолжать читать и вышла из класса. 5. Если бы я была на твоём месте, я бы не стала наказывать ребёнка, а отчитала бы его. 6. С самого начала гонки у Сэма было преимущество. 7. После того как я съезжу в Рим, я узнаю о нём побольше. 8. Постарайся понравиться своему новому партнёру, хорошо? 9. У Бена была привычка тщательно (аккуратно) записывать все лекции. 10. Лицо мальчика внезапно (неожиданно) покраснело от гнева. 11. Масло (рас)тает, если его оставить на столе. 12. Сильный шум в классе обычно сердит учителей.

Exercise 57 (Sample version)

1. Hair goes grey with age (when people get older). 2. Milk goes sour if it has been in a warm place for a long time. 3. Some people go mad when they are deceived or greatly annoyed. 4. Countries go free when they become independent of other countries. 5. Some people go white in the face when they are frightened or ill. 6. Some people go red in the face when they are too hot or angry. 7. Things go right when are done well and successfully. Things go wrong when are done badly.

Exercise 58

A. 1. Help me, please. The window won’t open. 2. — Try and unlock the door. — I’m trying, but the key won’t turn. 3. It’s difficult (hard) to drive a car if your hands won’t hold the wheel. 4. This book can be found in every shop but it won’t sell. 5. I have been waiting for ten minutes but the kettle won’t boil.

B. 1. The box the children (had) found in the forest wouldn’t open. 2. The car wouldn’t start and I understood that I would be late. 3. I wanted to take a bath, turned on the taps, the water wouldn’t run. 4. Though there was somebody in the room, the handle of the door wouldn’t turn and the door wouldn’t open. 5. He tried (was trying) to go ahead (to walk on) but his legs wouldn’t go (move).

Exercise 60

1. d; 2. g; 3. f; 4. c; 5. b; 6. i; 7. h; 8. j; 9. e; 10. a

Exercise 62

1. Because he was a wizard. 2. Because they didn’t allow him to concentrate on finding his way to classes. 3. Because there were 142 staircases, some of the doors wouldn’t open unless you asked politely and all the things seemed to move around a lot. 4. Argus Filch caught Harry and Ron trying to force their way to a place where pupils were not allowed and didn’t believe them when they said that they were lost. 5. Because there were a lot of things that they had to learn. 6. They had to study the night skies. 7. Because they had to learn how to take care of all the strange plants and fungi and how to use them. 8. Because Professor Binns was a ghost. 9. He fell off his pile of books because he got very excited as he knew who Harry was. 10. Because she was very strict and clever. 11. Because she wanted to impress her pupils and to show them what the class was about. 12. Because it was too complicated for them yet. 13. Because Hermione was the only pupil who managed to turn her match into a needle. 14. Because everyone had so much to learn.

Exercise 67

1. a public school; 2. to go on outings; 3. a first former (BrE), a first grader (AmE); 4. a classroom; 5. a school specializing in English; 6. a public school; 7. to assess pupils and their work; 8. GCSE exam; 9. special schools; 10. a canteen; 11. a higher education; 12. A Level exams; 13. a boarding school; 14. a break

Unit 3

Exercise 2

a) the sweet shop; b) the confectioner’s; c) the butcher’s; d) the baker’s; e) the grocer’s; f) the fishmonger’s; g) the dairy shop; h) the florist’s; i) the greengrocer’s; j) the stationer’s; k) the clothes shop

Exercise 3

1. a bottle of mineral water (oil, ketchup, juice); 2. a pack et of crisps (teabags, biscuits, sugar); 3. a carton of yogurt (sour cream, milk); 4. a jar of marmalade (honey, jam, pickles/pickled cucumbers); 5. a can of soda (lemonade, beer); 6. a tin/can of tomatoes (dog food, fish, caviar); 7. a bag of flour (potatoes, bread, chicken legs)

Exercise 7

A. 1. to enrol on an English course; 2. to force a lock; 3. a messy floor in the bedroom; 4. legendary characters (heroes); 5. a rare flower; 6. to vanish; 7. to concentrate on the new words; 8. to queue for ice cream; 9. solid advice; 10. wizardy and witchcraft; 11. to relieve pain; 12. to drone on about one’s problems; 13. to warn against a risky trip; 14. a new caretaker; 15. to tickle a/the kitten behind the ear; 16. a squeaky door

Exercise 8

1. surroundings; 2. neighbourhood; 3. bedrooms; 4. dormitories; 5. vanish; 6. disappear; 7. wizardy; 8. witchcraft; 9. legendary; 10. famous; 11. filthy; 12. messy; 13. force; 14. broke

Exercise 9

A. 1. Заключённый убежал от двух полицейских, которые держали его. 2. Старые машины сломали на металл и запчасти. 3. Пожар начался внезапно на рассвете. 4. Я пыталась сломить её сопротивление нашим планам. 5. Два юнца ворвались в дом господина Робинсона и совершили ограбление. 6. Во время их путешествия по Африке разразилась эпидемия холеры. 7. Наш телевизор сломался как раз в середине моего любимого фильма. 8. Ты знаешь, когда началась Первая мировая война в Европе? 9. Когда ты порываешь отношения с группой, ты перестаёшь быть её частью.

B. 1. It’s time to break away with this harmful habit. 2. Taking off the plane broke down and the flight was postponed (put off) until another day. 3. After her mother’s death Polly broke down and got seriously ill. 4. I know that your car has (is) broken down and you have to go to the railway station. You can use mine. 5. Looking at the funny monkey the children broke into laughter. 6. Why did you break (have you broken) into tears, Betty? Did you get (Have you got) frightened? 7. “Why have you broken into my house?” the old man asked the police(men).

Exercise 11

1. d; 2. i; 3. g; 4. b; 5. a; 6. c; 7. e; 8. h; 9. f

Exercise 12

1. earlier; 2. harder; 3. nearer; 4. faster; 5. higher; 6. most greedily; 7. more carelessly; 8. more carefully; 9. most neatly; 10. more quickly

Exercise 13

1. Today it snows heavier/more heavily ... 2. Peter drives most carefully of all. 3. You have worked so hard ... 4. Helen translated the poem best of all in her class. 5. Our new friend smiled warmly at us ... 6. Anna sat comfortably in the armchair ... 7. ... looked at the children more attentively. 8. Little Andrea walked slowest of us ... 9. Why are you smiling so sadly?

Exercise 14

1. loudly; 2. fastest; 3. slowly; 4. slowest; 5. easily; 6. quietly; 7. comfortably; 8. well; 9. widely; 10. surely

Exercise 15

A. 1. c; 2. d

B. A. 1; B. 4; C. 6; D. 2; E. 5; F. 7; G. 3

Exercise 16

1. ... Selfridges and Harrods. 2. ... Oxford Street. 3. ... withdraw from the High Street. 4. ... C&A ... 5. ... the large or small supermarkets ... 6. ... more specialized goods ... 7. Tesco ...

Exercise 17

1. Competition from the Far East means competition between goods produced in Britain and European Community (EC) with those made in such fast developing countries as Japan and Korea.

2. Rethinking the future plans means changing them or thinking them over again usually because of some new circumstances.

3. Priorities are things of primary importance.

4. The High Street is the most important shopping and business street in town centrally situated.

5. To withdraw from the High Street means to remove the store from the town centre to some other place in town, probably to the suburbs.

6. A corner shop is a small shop, usually (but not always) on a corner, which sells small items of everyday use: food, drinks, cigarettes, toiletries, etc. Corner shops are usually open longer hours than other shops.

7. Professionally butched meat is meat properly cut up and prepared for selling.

8. Pre-selected flowers are flowers arranged and sold in bunches as opposed to flowers that you choose yourself.

9. Major supermarkets are the biggest and the most important ones.

Exercise 19

1. e; 2. d; 3. c; 4. a; 5. b

Exercise 21

A. There are at least four things that make money valuable: a) money allows you to exchange your work for something you want; b) money is used to compare the value of things; c) money can be stored up and saved for future use; d) money can be a standard for future payments.

B. 1. a; 2. b; 3. c

Exercise 22

1. True. 2. True. 3. True. 4. False. 5. True. 6. True. 7. True. 8. True. 9. False. 10. True. 11. True.

Exercise 23

1. cash; 2. valuable; 3. grain; 4. cattle; 5. to store; 6. stamped; 7. how much each coin was worth; 8. the coins were still worth the amount stamped on them; 9. it (the money) was backed by the government and banks; 10. issued by the government; 11. by mowing lawns; 12. a “yardstick of value”; 13. various things; 14. in terms of your work; 15. a “storehouse of value”; 16. later payments

Exercise 24

A. 1. Cash is paper money and coins. Credit cards are small plastic cards issued by banks, they can be used instead of money to pay for goods and services. 2. People have been using money for over 2600 years. 3. It appeared because exchanging goods for other goods was not convenient and people needed some equivalent to use in trade. 4. They used shells, beads, cocoa beans, salt, grain, tobacco, skins and even cattle. All these things could be stored, most of them could be carried about, which is convenient when you go to some place to buy things. 5. Because silver and gold are rare metals: there couldn’t be enough silver and gold to satisfy the needs of all buyers. 6. Paper money is easy to make and light to carry. 7. Paper money is valuable because it is backed by the government and banks. 8. —

Exercise 25

1. worse; 2. most; 3. best; 4. least; 5. farther

Exercise 26

1. hardly; 2. highly; 3. lately; 4. right; 5. hard; 6. nearly; 7. high; 8. most; 9. late; 10. mostly; 11. wrongly; 12. near; 13. rightly; 14. wrong; 15. wide; 16. widely

Exercise 27

1. Open the gate(s) wide! 2. We hardly know each other. 3. What films have you seen lately? 4. I understood my mistake too late. 5. It is widely known that private schools are very prestigious. 6. John flew the kite high into the sky. 7. I can hardly call you my real friend. 8. It is snowing hard (heavily). 9. As he rightly said the world is in danger. 10. Betty lives near the shopping centre. 11. Flight 812 arrived too late. 12. He raised his hat high greeting us. 13. The latest novel by this writer is widely known. 14. This time do it right, don’t do it wrong again. 15. Bob has been (was) wrongly punished. 16. This job is highly paid.

Exercise 28

1. Все знают, что Нина плохо играет на пианино. 2. Телевизор очень нуждается в ремонте. 3. Нам очень нужны деньги. 4. Мне очень нужен совет. 5. Я не думаю о нём плохо из-за того, что он так поступил. 6. Джон говорит по-испански, но довольно плохо.

Exercise 29

a) ability: 4, 5, 12

b) possibility: 2, 7, 11

c) permission: 1, 8, 9

d) offer, request or order: 3, 6, 10

Exercise 30

1. a; 2. b; 3. b; 4. b; 5. a; 6. a

Exercise 31

The sentences No. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 are correct.

4. They managed (were able) to play their parts so well ... 6. I was able (managed) to answer ... 9. At last we managed (were able) to see the film.

Exercise 32

a) probability: 2, 3, 4, 5 (may not be at home), 6, 7, 8

b) permission: 1, 5 (may I come), 9, 10

Exercise 33

1. may; 2. might; 3. may; 4. may; 5. might; 6. may

Exercise 34

The sentences No. 1, 2, 4, 7, 10 are correct.

3. maybe; 5. may be; 6. may be; 8. may be; 9. maybe

Exercise 35

1. Robert can speak Spanish well enough to talk without an interpreter. 2. Mother, may I come back home at eleven tonight? 3. Father may repair my broken bicycle. 4. I might come round this evening. 5. They say I can do sums well. 6. Bob may phone this evening. 7. Johnny, dear, can you do something for me? 8. Could you go shopping this evening? 9. I can do the flat myself. 10. It may rain soon.

Exercise 36

1. can; 2. could; 3. can; 4. could; 5. can; 6. could; 7. were able to; 8. may be; 9. can; 10. can

Exercise 37

1. I think you will be able to see lots of rare birds on this island. 2. — Where are the keys? — They might (may) be still in the car. 3. You can buy (get) very cheap clothes at the market. 4. It can be very cold in winter in Siberia. 5. John can’t swim very well. 6. Could you open the door, please? 7. — I wonder what the weather will be like tomorrow. — It may (might) rain all day. 8. Excuse me, may I borrow the ketchup? 9. Mum, can (could) I wear your silk blouse to the disco tomorrow? 10. You may smoke when the plane has taken off.

Exercise 39 (Sample version)

1. Shop assistant: ...

Customer: No. Can you help me? Have you got pink blouses? I wear size 12.

S. a.: ...

C.: OK. Could you show me a navy blue blouse then?

S. a.: ...

C.: May I try it on?

S. a.: ...

C.: Yes, thank you.

S. a.: ...

C.: It fits perfectly.

S. a.: ...

C.: Do you take cards?

S. a.: ...

C.: Here you are.

S. a.: ...

C.: Thank you.

2. C.: ...

S. a.: Yes? What can I do for you?

C.: ...

S. a.: What size do you wear?

C.: ...

S. a.: Very good. Would you like to look at these?

C.: ...

S. a.: Certainly. How do they feel?

C.: ...

S. a.: Sorry, we don’t have them in larger sizes. We have the same shoes in grey colour.

C.: ...

S. a.: Just a second. Here you are. How do they feel?

C.: ...

S. a.: 45 pounds.

C.: ...

S. a.: Thank you. Here’s your receipt and your change.

C.: ...

Exercise 41

1. c; 2. d; 3. e; 4. a; 5. b

Exercise 42

1. down; 2. round; 3. over; 4. off; 5. across; 6. down; 7. off; 8. over; 9. round

Exercise 43

1. I have never come across this expression. 2. Just look at these old photographs. I came across them when I was clearing out our old cupboard. 3. Why don’t you come round to our house for dinner on Saturday? 4. The little baby came off his rocking horse. 5. What came over my elder brother? He let me work on his computer! 6. Jane is feeling so bad today. I think she is coming down with a cold. 7. A mysterious change came over their new teacher. 8. I don’t understand what came over the old lady all of a sudden. 9. Look! A button is coming off your blouse!

Exercise 46

1. g; 2. i; 3. a; 4. b; 5. d; 6. l; 7. c; 8. e; 9. k; 10. f; 11. h; 12. j

Exercise 47 (Sample version)

1. immense: joy, place, size, pleasure, improvement

2. reluctant: answer, person, promise, help, action

3. detached: house, look, attitude, view, area

4. detachable: lining, collar, cuffs, handle, sleeves

5. starched: shirt, collar, blouse, tablecloth, cap

6. stiff: shoes, paper, leg, face, smile

7. ridiculous: price, answer, idea, behaviour, look

8. dignified: manner, person, behaviour, words, remark

Exercise 48

1. dignity; 2. a fancy dress; 3. an outfit; 4. reluctance; 5. starch; 6. a tie; 7. a funeral; 8. chewing gum

Exercise 49

1. The film is worth watching (seeing). It is worth seeing the film. 2. It is worth trying to make this salad. This salad is worth trying to make. 3. It is not worth worrying about this. (This is not worth worrying about.) 4. The article is worth translating. It is worth translating the article. 5. It is not worth living a life without friendship. (Life is not worth living without friendship.) 6. It is worth having your hair cut. 7. It is very cold. I don’t think it is worth going for a walk. 8. It is worth learning to swim. 9. This fancy dress is worth buying. It is worth buying this fancy dress. 10. This shop is worth visiting. It is worth visiting this shop.

Exercise 50

A. 1. Is, it; 2. were, them; 3. are, them; 4. it, is; 5. are, They, are; 6. These, are; 7. is, It, is; 8. this, is, It, is

B. 1. All the money in the world can’t buy happiness. In many cases it is useless. 2. Your clothes are in the bathroom. I think they are already dry. You can take them. 3. Mr Brown’s funeral was on Monday. It was the first funeral that day and it began at ten o’clock. 4. The traffic lights are right opposite the school. 5. I have two pyjamas: one pair is blue, the other is pink. I like the pink pyjamas more. 6. In Hogwarts School there were a lot of stairs (staircases). The most mysterious of them were the stairs leading to the dungeon. 7. This big clock is a little slow and my watch is two minutes fast.

Exercise 51

1. ridiculous; 2. hilarious; 3. funny; 4. funny; 5. ridiculous; 6. hilarious

Exercise 52

1. reluctant; 2. tied; 3. worth; 4. flapping; 5. attached; 6. starched; 7. funeral; 8. detach; 9. outfit; 10. immense; 11. chew; 12. stiff; 13. ridiculous; 14. dignified

Exercise 53

1. I think this sports outfit is worth buying. (It is worth buying this sports outfit.) 2. The little boy looked quite ridiculous in his brand-new school uniform. 3. Every (each) people has its own tradition of holding funerals. 4. To our surprise, this time Tom gave us an answer full of dignity (a dignified answer). 5. Union Jack was flapping in the wind over the roof of the palace. It was clear that the Queen was in her residence. 6. He was still chewing his sandwich when the bell went (rang). 7. What kind of behaviour would you call eccentric? 8. I hate wearing stiffly starched shirts. 9. The children decided to organize (make, have) a fancy dress ball on the New Year(’s) Eve. 10. Bicycle wheels are made detachable. 11. There is an immense difference between the two twins. 12. In the centre of the room there was a big wooden table with benches attached to it. 13. Every young man should like to make a proper knot on his tie. 14. Hamburgers are not worth eating. They do more harm than good.

Exercise 54

B. 1. b; 2. d; 3. d

Exercise 55

B. 1. Not stated. 2. True. 3. False. 4. False. 5. True. 6. True. 7. Not stated. 8. False. 9. True. 10. True.

Exercise 56

A. The boy hated his new uniform because it was very unusual and uncomfortable, he thought he looked ridiculous in it. The uniform consisted of a shirt with a detachable collar, a tie, trousers with braces, a waistcoat, a jacket and black shoes.

B. 1. c; 2. f; 3. a; 4. d; 5. b; 6. e

Exercise 57

A. 1. f; 2. e; 3. d; 4. c; 5. b; 6. h; 7. g; 8. a

B. 1. Yesterday it took me ages to do ... 2. Her thick hair was jet- black ... 3. The bad mark in history put the lid on it. 4. I ... lost my nerve. 5. ... in her smart evening dress and brand-new shoes. 6. ... the audience shrieked with laughter. 7. The man walked along the street pretending to take no notice of me. 8. Get dressed ...

Exercise 58

зашнуровал; застегнул на пуговицы; застегнул пряжку (на ремне); застегнул молнию (на куртке); расшнуровал; расстегнул пуговицы (на пиджаке); расстегнул пряжку (на ремне); расстегнул молнию (на куртке)

Exercise 59

1. Which; 2. What; 3. Which; 4. What; 5. What; 6. What; 7. What; 8. Which; 9. Which; 10. What

Exercise 60

collar — 4; tie — 5; trousers — 1; braces — 7; shoes — 2; waistcoat — 3; jacket — 6; hat — 8

Exercise 61

1. He chose Repton School because its name was easier to pronounce than Marlborough. 2. His family lived in Kent in the southeast of England; the new school was in the Midlands, near Derby, which was about 140 miles away. He could get there by train. 3. His mother did. They went to London. 4. Because the collar was starched so stiff that he couldn’t get the studs through the slits. 5. No, he didn’t. 6. The boy was used to wearing a pair of shorts and a blazer. 7. His sisters did. They fell over the room laughing when he put on his new hat. 8. She said that in England men loved to wear uniforms and eccentric clothes. 9. The boy could consider himself lucky that he didn’t live in the 19th century where he would have worn even more eccentric clothes and a wig.

Exercise 62

In Britain people say “go up” when they travel north and “go down” when they travel south. This is how it looks on the map.

Exercise 68

A. 1. to fill in (out) a form; 2. to open a savings account; 3. to save money in a/the bank; 4. to loan money; 5. to become an account holder; 6. to pay in a certain sum of money; 7. to withdraw some money from your account; 8. to get a 5 per cent interest; 9. an exchange rate; 10. to use cashpoints

B. 1. department/variety stores; 2. a theme park; 3. a food court; 4. rides, amusements and games; 5. a recreation area; 6. shopping baskets and trolleys; 7. special facilities for the elderly and disabled; 8. fashion clothes; 9. footwear; 10. jewellery; 11. fabrics; 12. home furnishings; 13. tableware; 14. stationery; 15. hi-fi; 16. make a purchase; 17. to pay cash

Exercise 69

I. 1. c; 2. b; 3. a. II. 1. c; 2. b; 3. a

Exercise 70 (Sample version)

1. They do it when a customer asks for a credit or a loan. 2. The customer guarantees repaying the loaned or lended money. 3. Mostly because bank accounts help them to save up money. 4. Interest is a charge made for the borrowing of money. If a bank borrows your money (and that’s what they do when you put in your money), they pay you some interest, that is some extra money, more than you have lended them. 5. People use these plastic cards to pay for goods and services and to get cash from cashpoints. 6. It’s a machine that you can see outside banks and at other places from which you can get cash by putting in your bank card. 7. Banks are useful because they help you to save money by opening bank accounts for you, they can offer you cards and cheque books, give you loans, etc. 8. There would be no money in the modern sense. Saving would be difficult as there would be no safe form to store wealth.

Unit 4

Exercise 2

1. b; 2. m; 3. k; 4. e; 5. d; 6. c; 7. h; 8. n; 9. g; 10. o; 11. f; 12. l; 13. i; 14. a; 15. j

Exercise 3

1. True. 2. False. 3. True. 4. False. 5. True. 6. False. 7. False. 8. True. 9. True. 10. True. 11. False. 12. False.

Exercise 4

1. D; 2. C; 3. E; 4. A; 5. B; 6. F; extra — 7

Exercise 5

1. Which; 2. What; 3. Which; 4. What; 5. Which; 6. What; 7. Which; 8. What; 9. What; 10. Which

Answers:

1. The telescope. 2. Poland. 3. The USA. 4. 36°C — 39°C. 5. 1392 000. 6. Bats. 7. The Hermitage. 8. About 360 terabyts. 9. A violent whirlwind. 10. About 100 000 million stars.

Exercise 6

1. collar; 2. band; 3. sleeve; 4. waistcoat; 5. braces; 6. stud; 7. slit; 8. tailcoat; 9. tie; 10. zipper

Exercise 7

A. 1. funny; 2. fancy dress; 3. ridiculous; 4. attached; 5. waved; 6. immense; 7. reluctance; 8. unlaced

B. 1. was surrounded; 2. were allowed; 3. had learnt; 4. given; 5. had finished; 6. took; 7. to bring; 8. might; 9. find

Exercise 8

1. I’m looking; 2. size do you wear/want (are you looking for); 3. if we have some (one); 4. Can I try it on? 5. the fitting room; 6. can (do) I pay for it? 7. by card

Exercise 9

1. Pennies and pounds. 2. A dime. 3. Withdraw it. 4. Borrow it. 5. Paper money and coins. 6. By check and by card. 7. 20 pounds. 8. Sign it. 9. Bank clerks do. 10. How much does it cost? How much is it?

Exercise 10

2. clothes; 3. money; 4. footwear; 5. fruit; 6. jewellery (AmE jewelry); 7. stationery; 8. furniture; 9. musical instruments; 10. table ware

Exercise 11

1. can; 2. may, cannot; 3. could/may; 4. can; 5. can; 6. may; 7. may not; 8. may not; 9. could; 10. could

Exercise 12

A. 1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. a; 6. a

B. 1. What century gave us such important inventions as the automobile, the airplane, the helicopter, etc.? 2. What kind of experiments did Alexander Bell and his brothers make? 3. What did Alexander Bell do after graduating from the University of London? 4. What was Bell’s phonautograph like? 5. Why did Bell take Thomas A. Watson as an assistant? 6. Where did Bell first show his first model of the telephone? 7. Why didn’t Bell want to exhibit his invention? (Why did he feel reluctant ...?) 8. What did the Emperor of Brazil do? 9. What were the words the inventor said with the help of the transmitter? 10. What did Alexander Bell receive the Centennial prize for?

Exercise 13

3. telephone; 4. radio; 6. electric (electricity); 8. airplane; 9. computer; 11. chemical; 13. synthetics; 15. telegraph; 16. interest; 18. emigrate; 21. membrane; 22. vibrate; 23. zigzag; 26. model; 29. Emperor; 30. monologue; 32. memoirs

Exercise 14

1. ... the immense use of electricity in the 20th century. 2. ... as the need arises. 3. ... experiments with the human voice. 4. ... was a teacher of the deaf. 5. ... to the invention of the telephone. 6. ... with the transmitter across the room. 7. ... the greatest of the time. 8. ... and awoke to find myself famous.

Exercise 15 (Sample version)

1. The Need for Inventions (paragraphs 1—3)

2. Bell’s Young Years (paragraphs 4, 5)

3. Working on a Multiple Telegraph (paragraphs 6, 7)

4. The Exhibition in Philadelphia (paragraph 8)

5. The Fame (paragraph 9)

Exercise 17

1. A war from a computer game. 2. As people can interact with computer-simulated images, the technology allows them to “practise” some activities in the virtual world. 3. No. For example, we don’t know much about the side effects of the new technology on people. 4. a) VR programmes may spread violence, pornography and advertising; people may begin to mix up the real world with the virtual one; b) in science they may lead to wrong conclusions; c) trained with virtual technologies programmes, people may turn out to be unprepared for real situations. 5. Human ethics and morality may break down.

Exercise 18

1. f; 2. j; 3. n; 4. i; 5. l; 6. a; 7. d; 8. b; 9. o; 10. c; 11. g; 12. m; 13. e; 14. k; 15. h

Exercise 19

1. “Will virtual reality make us better people? Will it make us worse?”

2. “Critics of VR say that this sort of technology without careful regulation will be nothing more than a high-tech instrument for spreading violence, pornography and advertising. ”

3. “In today’s virtual worlds people can do a lot of things and their advantages — both real and potential — are clear.”

4. “... the technology that allows users to interact with computer- simulated images and some day may offer getting into make-believe worlds.”

5. “Perhaps the biggest question of all is what virtual reality will mean for human ethics and morality. There is a danger that traditional morality will break down in virtual worlds. ”

6. “Virtual reality is an environment in which computers create the effect of a world which seems almost completely real to the people in it.”

Exercise 20

1. Jane spoke firmly at the meeting last Wednesday. 2. The player caught the football quickly at the stadium. 3. The fans cheered their favourite team wildly at the gym yesterday. 4. The director spoke excitedly at the rehearsal on Monday. 5. Bob threw the ball high in the hall then. 6. Belinda was moving the chairs noisily in her room last night. 7. The children ran downstairs quickly. 8. The little kitten crept upstairs silently.

Exercise 21

1. People Adv think ... 2. We Adv like ... 3. ... are Adv popular ... 4. ... is Adv clean ... 5. ... brothers Adv agree. 6. They Adv sing ... 7. We Adv quarrelled. 8. ... children Adv have ... 9. ... has Adv finished ... 10. We Adv come ... 11. ... pupils Adv send ... 12. People Adv win ... 13. Tom Adv learnt ... 14. My parents Adv visit ...

Exercise 22

a) 1; b) 4, 5, 6; c) 2, 3, 7

Exercise 23

1. Emma has never seen snow. 2. Jemma opened the door quietly — all the students were cheerfully discussing the latest news. 3. She is hardly ever at home, she seldom goes to the library either. 4. Dick is never late, he always comes to the office on time. 5. Dogs and horses are exceptionally clever animals. 6. He is seldom seen here. 7. Do you ever think about (of) your future job? 8. I occasionally go to the circus. 9. Yesterday John came late enough and was surprisingly calm. 10. I’m quite free now though I am seldom free.

Exercise 24

a) obligation: 2, 4; b) probability: 1, 5, 7; c) prohibition: 3, 6

Exercise 25

1. must; 2. have to; 3. have to; 4. must; 5. must; 6. has to; 7. must; 8. has to

Exercise 27

1. don’t have to; 2. must not; 3. don’t have to; 4. must not; 5. don’t have to; 6. must not; 7. must not; 8. must not; 9. doesn’t have to

Exercise 29

1. have got/have; 2. has; 3. has; 4. have got/have; 5. have; 6. has got/has; 7. have/have got

Exercise 30 (Sample version)

1. I think you should (ought to) ask your teacher to allow you to sit at the front. 2. I think you should (ought to) go and visit her. 3. I think you should (ought to) go to the shops. 4. I think you should (ought to) call the airport and find out. 5. I think you should (ought to) do the place properly before your mother’s arrival. 6. I think you should (ought to) take him to the dentist. 7. I think you should (ought to) help her. 8. I think you should (ought to) dress warmer.

Exercise 31

1. a, c; 2. a, b; 3. c; 4. b; 5. b, a; 6. a, b; 7. c, a; 8. a, b

Exercise 32

1. c; 2. b; 3. d; 4. a

Exercise 33

1. At my school we can (may) wear jeans if we want. We don’t have to wear a uniform. 2. You mustn’t/shouldn’t go out without a coat. It’s freezing cold. 3. If your shoes hurt you, you shouldn’t wear them. 4. Someone has stolen my passport. I must (have to) go to the police station. 5. Your parents don’t know where you are. I’m sure they will be worried about you. You must call them. 6. Don’t you think that Latin should be learnt at school? 7. Our train broke down yesterday, so we had to finish our journey by bus. 8. My mother has bought a dishwasher so I don’t have to do the washing-up any more. 9. My parents are very strict. I must be at home early. 10. You mustn’t touch those cakes. They are not for you.

Exercise 34

1. The blind; 2. rich; 3. The old ... the young; 4. the deaf, dumb or blind; 5. the rich; 6. old

Exercise 36 (Sample version)

a) ... disturb (remove the furniture; feed the animals, etc.); b) ... head (step); c) ... out; d) ... right (left, off the grass, etc.); e) ... of the dog (of wild animals, etc.); f) ... smoking (trespassing, etc.); g) ... of order; h) ... the grass (the road, etc.)

Exercise 37

1. on a train or a bus; 2. on a box; 3. in a park; 4. on a road; 5. at the customs; 6. on the stairs; 7. at a railway station or an airport; 8. on a fence, gate or a door; 9. on a gate; 10. in a public place

Exercise 38

1. ... I’ll see to your garden ... 2. ... to see off our friend ... 3. ... I’ll see you around quite often ... 4. ... he didn’t see through his sister’s lies ... 5. ... come to see you off. 6. ... I saw Jeremy around ... 7. ... could easily see through the detectives’ actions. 8. See to it that the lights are switched off ...

Exercise 39

1. through; 2. to; 3. to; 4. off; 5. through; 6. around; 7. through; 8. off; 9. around; 10. to

Exercise 40

1. We went to the station to see off our aunt. 2. Could you see to it that our guests are given tea? 3. Never before I’ve met a person who could see through all the children’s tricks. 4. Which of you has seen him around recently? 5. Someone has to see to the holidaymakers’ comfort. 6. May (Can) I see you off at the station? 7. We need someone who is hard to be deceived, who can see through the enemy. 8. Bye, I’ll see you around!

Exercise 43

1. variety; 2. desire; 3. advantages; 4. insists; 5. predicted; 6. recorded; 7. worn; 8. case; 9. irritable; 10. supplied; 11. equipment; 12. beside; 13. require; 14. irritably/indifferently; 15. bothering

Exercise 44

1. worn out; 2. expression; 3. predict; 4. insisted; 5. record; 6. variety; 7. equipment; 8. nervous; 9. indifferent; 10. desire; 11. supplies ... with; 12. bother; 13. cases; 14. irritable; 15. an advantage; 16. in case

Exercise 45

1. f; 2. k; 3. c; 4. a; 5. h; 6. d; 7. j; 8. l; 9. e; 10. g; 11. b

Exercise 46 (Sample version)

a) criminal, enemy, danger, success; b) speech, person, expression; c) atmosphere, person, behaviour; d) look, tone, person; e) voice, person, answer; f) reasons, books, fruits

Exercise 47

1. robot; 2. mania; 3. intellect; 4. individual; 5. hybrid; 6. sterilized; 7. desire; 8. expression; 9. equipment; 10. variety; 11. record; 12. irritable

Exercise 48

1. over; 2. of; 3. for; 4. on; 5. of; 6. in; 7. with; 8. of; 9. to; 10. with; 11. about (after); 12. on; 13. from

Exercise 49

1. different; 2. various; 3. different; 4. different; 5. various (different); 6. different; 7. various (different)

Exercise 50

1. a serious medical case; 2. in case of bad weather; 3. in my case; 4. just in case; 5. in case of fire; 6. in that case; 7. in case it rains; 8. in any case; 9. a classic case; 10. several cases

Exercise 51

1. I have bought various fruits: apples, pears, apricots and peaches. 2. We are very different. I like staying at home and leading a quiet life but Mary often goes to the theatre, cinema and parties. 3. He has a good home library (collection of books). You will be able to find various books on the shelves. 4. They say tastes differ. It’s true. Our tastes are different. My choice is always different from yours. I would never have bought such trousers. 5. David collects stamps. There are various stamps in his collection including rare ones. 6. There are various (different) ways of explaining it. I know at least four.

Exercise 52

1. beside; 2. besides; 3. besides; 4. besides; 5. beside; 6. besides; 7. beside; 8. beside

Exercise 53

B. 1. True. 2. False. 3. Not stated. 4. False. 5. False. 6. True. 7. False. 8. True. 9. Not stated. 10. Not stated. 11. True. 12. True.

Exercise 54

A. The fact is that the main character — the surgeon — turns out to be a robot.

B. 1. c; 2. f; 3. a; 4. e; 5. d; 6. b

Exercise 55

1. b; 2. c; 3. b; 4. a; 5. b; 6. c; 7. c

Exercise 56

A. 1. e; 2. a; 3. h; 4. b; 5. d; 6. g; 7. f; 8. c

B. 1. В ближайшем будущем я никуда не поеду. У меня есть работа здесь. 2. Дорогу не скоро отремонтируют. Рабочие не торопятся. 3. Близнецы так похожи, что даже родители не могут их различить. 4. Рон хвастается, что за всю свою жизнь не сделал ничего против собственной воли. 5. Лектор продолжал говорить, не обращая внимания на шум. 6. Могу ли я спросить, кто возглавляет экспедицию? 7. Он не хочет идти в театр, но я постараюсь уговорить его. 8. Солдаты — живые люди, береги их жизни. 9. Она отговорила свою подругу от поездки на отдых во Францию.

C. 1. In the near future ... 2. ... in flesh and blood. 3. Take your time. 4. ... talk him into giving his apologies ... 5. ... in charge. 6. ... pay attention to ... 7. ... tell the difference. 8. ... against my will. 9. Let’s talk him out of it.

Exercise 57

1. Do come ... 2. Do turn ... 3. ... I do know the answer/ I do want to tell you ... 4. I do keep ... 5. Do sit down. 6. I do love her. 7. You do look nice ... 8. ... I did drive ... 9. She does love skiing. 10. But I did buy ...

Exercise 58

1. ... one can always use ... 2. One can’t always get what one (he/she) wants (they want). 3. One should wash oneself ... 4. One shouldn’t expect all people to like him/her (them). 5. One lives only once. 6. One has to learn to do a lot of things oneself (himself/herself/themselves). 7. One never forgives a friend who lets one down.

Exercise 60

1. neither; 2. either; 3. any; 4. none; 5. None; 6. either; 7. any; 8. Neither

Exercise 61

1. — What are we doing (going to do/shall we do) today? — We can go either to the cinema or to the theatre. What would you like? — Neither this nor that. (Neither one nor the other.) I’m tired and want to stay at home. 2. None of the houses in our street looks modern. 3. Please give me a pen or a pencil. Either will do. 4. — Would you like fruit or ice cream? — Neither (this nor that). I’m full. (I’ve had enough.) 5. I would like to invite either Nick or Kate to the theatre. It depends on which of them is (will be) free on Tuesday. 6. Neither my friends nor me (I) have ever heard of this writer.

Exercise 63

1. Because the operation was serious. 2. He tried to talk the patient out of having (getting) a metal heart. 3. Because it was less dangerous as it was made of a polymeric material imitating the human heart. 4. No, he didn’t. 5. He didn’t want a “plastic” heart as it could wear out easier than a metal one. 6. They were robots that had the status of citizens. 7. People believed that Metallos were physically strong and powerful. 8. Yes, it was to some of them. In the first place one always wants to have what one doesn’t have. (The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence.) Also Metallos might have found certain human features attractive: emotions, such as love and hatred, sympathy, etc., among them human way of life could be also attractive. 9. The engineer thought that some day there would be a society of hybrids (half Metallos, half humans) on his planet. He hoped to have the advantage of men combined with those of robots. 10. The surgeon didn’t believe in hybrids of men and robots because they were neither men nor robots. 11. — 12. — 13. The surgeon’s face had no expression (“without expression”, “the surgeon’s face didn’t change expression”, “I can’t say what happened by just looking at you”). The patient didn’t want to address him as a doctor (he did it “against his will”). 14. One of the possible ideas: People should not try to change their nature or become somebody else. Variety makes the society better, not worse. 15. —

Exercise 69

1. physics; 2. biology; 3. mathematics; 4. geology; 5. engineering; 6. astronomy; 7. chemistry; 8. botany; 9. zoology; 10. microbiology

Exercise 70

1. invented; 2. discover; 3. invention; 4. inventions; 5. discovered; 6. discovery; 7. invent; 8. discoveries; 9. discovered; 10. invented

Exercise 71

1. explore; 2. observed; 3. testing; 4. invented; 5. discovered; 6. discovery; 7. test; 8. explored; 9. observation; 10. observations/discoveries; 11. invention; 12. discovery; 13. discovery; 14. discovered; 15. invents; 16. observed

Exercise 74

1. f; 2. m; 3. a; 4. j; 5. i; 6. b; 7. k; 8. c; 9. n; 10. d; 11. g; 12. e; 13. l; 14. h

Exercise 76

a) 19; b) 2; c) 5; d) 10; e) 1; f) 12; g) 17; h) 18; i) 13; j) 8; k) 9; l) 7; m) 15; n) 20; o) 11; p) 14; q) 3; r) 4; s) 22; t) 6; u) 21; v) 16; w) 23

Exercise 77

1. instruction — команда

2. word processing — обработка текста

3. accounting — вычисление

4. PC user — пользователь персонального компьютера

5. to log into — войти

6. network — сеть

7. user name — имя пользователя

8. password — пароль

9. operation system — операционная система

10. to load — загрузить(ся)

11. menu — меню; icons — значки панели управления, иконки

12. diagram — чертёж

13. to shape — придавать форму

14. to move — перемещать

15. to transform — преобразовывать

16. to copy — копировать

17. to fill — закрашивать, заполнять объект

18. to format — форматировать

19. to edit — редактировать

20. to save — сохранять

21. to delete — удалять

22. to print — распечатать

23. file — файл

24. hard disk — жёсткий диск, винчестер

25. to back up — резервировать

26. clicking — нажатие клавиши на мышке

27. access — доступ

28. surfing the Internet — поиск информации в Интернете

29. chat room — чат (страница для дискуссий в Интернете)

30. online — напрямую, в реальном времени

31. e-mail — электронная почта

32. webpage — веб-страница; website — веб-сайт

Unit 5

Exercise 2

1. Going on a long trip, one usually takes big pieces of luggage: suitcases, trunks, tote bags and luggage carriers. 2. A short trip requires tote bags, duffel bags or backpacks (especially if you go on foot). 3. If one goes away on business, one usually takes a briefcase, a garment bag, or a tote bag. 4. Such pieces of luggage as a shoulder bag, a duffel bag, a utility case and a vanity case can be handy on any kind of trip.

Exercise 4

1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. c; 5. b; 6. c; 7. a; 8. c; 9. c; 10. b

Exercise 5

1. at, with, in; 2. to, from; 3. of, by, by; 4. by; 5. at, off; 6. into/out of; 7. on; 8. on, —; 9. to; 10. to

Exercise 6

a) an airport; b) a railway station; c) a sea port

Exercise 7

A. 1. Наши друзья любят провожать своих родственников, отправляющихся путешествовать. 2. Вскоре мы его раскусили и поняли, какой план он строит (что он замышляет). 3. Я пойду позабочусь об обеде. 4. Я не очень часто вижу его в последнее время.

B. 1. Who saw Mr Swift off at the airport when he was flying (away) to America? 2. I promise I’ll see to it that the children are given their dinner. 3. He (has) never managed to deceive his elder sister. She has always seen (saw) through him. 4. When shall/will I see you round again?

Exercise 8

1. nervous; 2. indifferent; 3. various; 4. the expression of his face; 5. irritably (about); 6. desire; 7. equipment; 8. required; 9. supplies; 10. was an advantage over ...; 11. to bother; 12. rude expressions

Exercise 10

a) 2, 7

b) 4, 6, 9

c) 1, 3, 5, 8

Exercise 11

1. mustn’t; 2. don’t/doesn’t have to; 3. mustn’t; 4. mustn’t; 5. mustn’t; 6. don’t/doesn’t have to; 7. don’t have to; 8. don’t/ doesn’t have to

Exercise 13

1. In the morning my father always buys a newspaper in the newspaper stand. 2. John seldom (rarely) goes on holiday in autumn. 3. I am occasionally late for classes. But I am not at all proud of it. 4. This film has just been shown to the young viewers (audience). 5. He has hardly ever been to England in winter. 6. Have you often met such talented people in the theatre? 7. Mr Roberts doesn’t usually come downstairs to tea. 8. What fruit is often supplied to the capital in summer?

Exercise 14

A. 1. Indian; 2. Russia; 3. south; 4. 10 provinces and 3 territories; 5. forests; 6. governor general; 7. 3; 8. English and French

B. 1. D; 2. C; 3. A; 4. E; 5. B; 6. G; 7. F

Exercise 16

1. ... Russia 2. ... the maple leaf. 3. ... the 17th and early 18th centuries. 4. ... English and French ... 5. ... ten, three ... capital city. 6. ... half of Canada. 7. ... the Queen, the Senate ... the House of Commons ... 8. Any child ...

Exercise 17

1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. a; 8. a; 9. a; 10. b

Exercise 18

1. Canada is a big country in the north of the North American continent. It borders on the USA in the south. Canada’s neighbour across the Arctic Ocean is Russia. 2. Canada is washed by the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Arctic Oceans. Four of the Great American Lakes (Lake Ontario, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, Lake Eire) are partly situated on Canadian territory. There’s also the Great Slave Lake and some others. The important rivers are the St Lawrence, the MacKenzie, Canada’s longest river which drains into the Arctic Ocean; the Columbia and the Fraser rivers flowing into the Pacific; the Nelson and the Churchill rivers connected with Hudson Bay; the Yukon flows into the Bering Sea and the Saskatchewan flowing into Lake Winnipeg. 3. Canada has different types of relief: highlands and plains. In the east there are the Appalachian Mountains, the Canadian Cordillera and the Rocky Mountains. Canada’s highest peaks are in the St Elias Mountains. The highest point in Canada is Mount Logan (6050 m). The Canadian prairies are an agricultural area. 4. Most of the population (about 80%) live in urban areas concentrated within hundred miles of the US border. This area has a better climate and is more conveniently situated. 5. The country is divided into 10 provinces and 3 territories. Each province has its own legislation. 6. The biggest Canadian cities are Toronto (Ontario), Ottawa (Ontario), Montreal (Quebec), Vancouver (British Columbia). Toronto is situated on Lake Ontario, Montreal — on Montreal Island in the St Lawrence river, Vancouver — on the Pacific Ocean. 7. The country is rich in gas, oil, coal, gold, copper, iron, nickel, uranium, zinc and also in forests and wildlife. 8. —

Exercise 19 (Sample version)

1. Canada and Russia are alike because both have very big territories; some of the territory lies behind the Arctic Circle, a lot of the territory is covered with woods; in many places the climate is similar; the parliaments of both countries have two houses, both are federal states, etc.

2. Canada and Russia are different because the population of Russia is much larger; Canada has provinces and territories and Russia has federal regions (7). Russia has a president and Canada doesn’t. Canada is a monarchy and Russia is not; Canada has two official languages and Russia doesn’t, etc.

Exercise 22

The text was written for people living in the second half of the 19th, and possibly, the beginning of the 20th century. Reasons: 1. Books of etiquette for travellers do not exist any longer as travelling has become very common. 2. Some of the advice sounds very old-fashioned, like having a good breakfast before setting off or demonstrating the manners of a gentleman or lady. 3. Trains are called a new type of transport and travellers are advised not to fear them. The first trains appeared in England in the middle of the 19th century. 4. The advice to keep a journal sounds strange because of the things recommended for usage: inks, nibs, blotters are not used now.

Exercise 23

Probably “Practical Advice for the Traveller” because basically it’s what the text is about. It doesn’t say anything about the pros and cons of travelling, and it’s not a guidebook which usually gives descriptions of places for the use of visitors.

Exercise 24

1. Geography; 2. Time; 3. Climate; 4. Journal; 5. Language; 6. Luggage; 7. Breakfast; 8. Dress; 9. Lost; 10. Trains; 11. Money; 12. Manners; 13. Packing; 14. Make-up

Exercise 25

1. to be at ease in all circumstances; 2. the spirit of true courtesy; 3. estimated expenses; 4. the route and region of travel; 5. unexpected detentions; 6. at daybreak; 7. receive the respect of others; 8. to make the journey more agreeable; 9. special considerations; 10. ample time; 11. should not be feared; 12. facing the engine; 13. have “charge” of the windows; 14. object to a window being opened; 15. how much the rosy of their cheeks owes to art instead of nature; 16. a nail file; 17. point the hand indicating 4 to the sun; 18. keep a journal; 19. a remembrance

Exercise 26

a) 3, 5, 9; b) 1, 4, 7; c) 2, 6, 8, 10

Exercise 27

1. You should hurry: the hall is to be ready for the beginning of the sitting. 2. All of you are to stay after classes and complete (finish) the work. 3. Tools are to be left here. 4. To be taken with water or fruit juice. 5. The papers (documents) are to be read (out) in the parliament. 6. The Prime Minister is to visit our country in August. 7. The satellite is to be launched at the beginning of summer (in early summer). 8. Not to be heated above 50 degrees. 9. You are to ask your parents to come to the school. 10. This problem is to be solved by the government in the near future.

Exercise 28

Need as a modal verb is used in the following sentences: 2, 4, 8, 9.

Exercise 29

1. We needn’t buy food today, we’re eating out in a restaurant. 2. Does anyone need a lovely grey kitten? 3. You (we) needn’t hurry, the train leaves (departs) only in three hours. (We have three hours before the train leaves.) 4. I understood that Sam needed my help. 5. We don’t need another actress for this role. 6. We (you) needn’t speak about it again, I remember everything. 7. Do you need any new copies of this text? 8. If we needn’t do lessons today, let’s go to the cinema.

Exercise 30

1. needn’t; 2. shouldn’t; 3. shouldn’t; 4. needn’t; 5. needn’t;

6. shouldn’t; 7. shouldn’t; 8. needn’t; 9. needn’t

Exercise 31

a) 2, 5, 6 (shouldn’t have asked)

b) 1, 3, 4, 6 (should have decided)

Exercise 32

1. the Victoria and Albert Museum; 2. the Tower; 3. Tower Bridge; 4. St Paul’s Cathedral; 5. Piccadilly Circus; 6. Buckingham Palace; 7. the Tate Gallery; 8. the British Museum

Exercise 33

1. I needn’t have phoned Andy. My sister phoned him (did it) before me. 2. You could have told me we were not going to school on Monday. 3. Alice shouldn’t have drunk cold milk. 4. Kim should have typed the letter. Her handwriting is no good. 5. Michael needn’t ask about this (it). He knows the answer to this question. 6. You could have taken part in the competition. Why didn’t you come? 7. Caroline, you should have washed up. 8. We needn’t look for Granny’s glasses. She has already found them. 9. Jack needn’t have gone to the shops. There is plenty of food at home. 10. They should have painted the walls yellow. Mrs Adams likes this colour.

Exercise 34 (Sample version)

1. You should have ironed the linen.

2. You should have watered the flowers.

3. You shouldn’t have smoked in the flat.

4. You should have swept the floor.

5. You should have washed up.

6. You should have cooked dinner (fish and chicken).

7. You should have put the milk and cheese in the fridge.

8. You should have washed (your blouse).

9. You should have bought some bread.

Exercise 36

1. Larry looks great (very good) for his age. 2. The boy looks too tired to go farther (further). 3. Ann says she feels great after her seaside holiday. 4. The pie tastes very nice, thank you. 5. It’s getting hot, let’s open the window. 6. His story sounds interesting. 7. The teapot (kettle) still feels hot. 8. Does the soup taste good? 9. You look very smart. Where are you going? 10. Your little brother looks quite happy. 11. The song sounds very quiet, I don’t understand the words. 12. What’s this dish? It smells so tasty.

Exercise 38

1. (The) Lilac smells sweet. 2. John always speaks quietly. 3. My uncle looked at me angrily. 4. The music sounds loud. 5. Nelly feels well, but her sister still looks bad. 6. The children speak Spanish badly (poorly). 7. When Ann heard the news, she became sad. 8. Jack was/felt warm. He didn’t feel it was freezing outdoors. 9. Mrs Biggs greeted us coldly and left the room. 10. The food tastes bitter. 11. It’s getting dark. 12. While saying goodbye (parting with us), he was smiling sadly.

Exercise 39

American, Belgian, Canadian, Mexican, Swiss, British. Because these languages do not exist.

Exercise 40

1. The Chinese live in China. They speak Chinese. 2. The Italians live in Italy. They speak Italian. 3. The British live in Britain. They speak English. 4. The Norwegians live in Norway. They speak Norwegian. 5. The Russians live in Russia. They speak Russian. 6. The Swedish live in Sweden. They speak Swedish. 7. The Japanese live in Japan. They speak Japanese. 8. The Czech live in the Czech Republic. They speak Czech. 9. The Irish live in Ireland. They speak Irish Gaelic and English. 10. The Americans live in the USA. They speak English. 11. The Portuguese live in Portugal. They speak Portuguese. 12. The Turks live in Turkey. They speak Turkish. 13. The Canadians live in Canada. They speak English and French. 14. The Greeks live in Greece. They speak Greek. 15. The French live in France. They speak French. 16. The English live in England. They speak English. 17. The Welsh live in Wales. They speak Welsh and English. 18. The Mexicans live in Mexico. They speak Spanish. 19. The Dutch live in Holland (the Netherlands). They speak Dutch. 20. The Scottish live in Scotland. They speak English and Scottish Gaelic.

Exercise 41

1. c; 2. f; 3. i; 4. k; 5. g; 6. j; 7. b; 8. l; 9. a; 10. d; 11. h; 12. e

Exercise 43

1. Last year two Englishwomen came to our school. 2. I’d like to learn (know) more about the Belgian Royal Family. 3. (The) Mexicans speak Spanish. 4. The Chinese belong to a very ancient civilization and every Chinese is proud of it. 5. (The) Finns are great skiers and so are the Norwegians. 6. She is Irish, but she lives in England. 7. Two Italians and a German play in their football team. 8. The Spanish (Spaniards) are famous for their singing and dancing. 9. These two young men are Canadian(s). They’ve come (came) here from Ottawa. 10. The name of this artist is familiar to every Frenchman (French person).

Exercise 44

1. an ant’s nest; 3. a child’s dream; 6. London’s streets; 7. a day’s trip; 8. a month’s salary; 9. two years’ wait; 10. yesterday’s speech

Exercise 46

1. f; 2. d; 3. b; 4. e; 5. g; 6. c; 7. a

Exercise 47

1. c; 2. d; 3. a; 4. b

Exercise 48

A. a) underground maps; information on television screens; indicators on the front of the trains and on the platform; station staff

B. 1. Northern; 2. a television screen; 3. 270; 4. symbol; 5. ticket machine, ticket office; 6. Travelcards; 7. destinations; 8. gives it up; 9. all of London’s buses and main line trains; 10. at railway and underground stations

Exercise 51

1. Он бросил школу. 2. Почему бы тебе как-нибудь не зайти (ко мне) и не взглянуть на фотографии (снимки), которые я сделал, когда отдыхал в Санкт-Петербурге? 3. Тебя высадить у твоего дома? 4. Джейн зашла ко мне после ужина. 5. В группе осталось только семь человек — пятеро в прошлом месяце выбыли (отчислились). 6. С какой стати набрасываться на младшего брата, когда очевидно, что он этого не делал? 7. Я просто заглянул(а), чтобы пожелать тебе счастливого Рождества. 8. Сегодня в городе я случайно встретил(а) старого друга.

Exercise 52

1. in; 2. out; 3. in on; 4. off; 5. out; 6. on; 7. in; 8. out; 9. off; 10. on

Exercise 55

1. a nightmare; a reunion; a tear; a destination; a vessel; a couple

2. to thrill; to clatter; to sink; to groan; to tremble; to embrace; to flow

3. confused; rough; annual; wrinkled; bare

Exercise 56

to clatter on the roof; a confusing answer; a rough sea; to sink to the bottom; a groan of despair; to tremble with anger (rage); to embrace tenderly; a fishing vessel; a flow of words; the destination of our trip; wrinkled cheeks; an annual holiday (festival); to burst into tears; bare branches of trees; a thrilling game; a family reunion; a real nightmare; a married couple

Exercise 57

1. annual; 2. thrilling; 3. clatter; 4. embrace; 5. tears, wrinkled; 6. couple; 7. destination; 8. sank; 9. rough; 10. nightmare; 11. reunion; 12. confusing; 13. bare; 14. groaning; 15. flow

Exercise 58

1. pair; 2. pair; 3. couple; 4. pair; 5. couple; 6. couple; 7. pair; 8. pair; 9. couple; 10. couples

Exercise 59

1. Go shopping and buy a couple of kilos of apples. 2. The first day of the journey was a real nightmare but then everything changed for the better. 3. The sea was so rough that nearly everybody got/was seasick. 4. The tree was bare, there were no leaves on it. 5. There were tears on the old woman’s wrinkled face, weren’t there? 6. What thrilling news! 7. Without the carpet my bedroom looks quite bare. 8. Fiona is my half-sister. 9. Why are you trembling, Diana? I don’t think it’s cold here. 10. Into what sea does the Severn flow? 11. Her words confused me. 12. I could hear the clatter of pots and pans in the kitchen. 13. The ship sank in deep water. 14. The grandmother embraced her granddaughter warmly (tenderly). 15. I always read this annual magazine.

Exercise 60

B. 2.

C. 1. False. (They were Christmas holidays.) 2. False. (The weather was nice.) 3. True. 4. True. 5. True. 6. False. (It was the first time she was driving.) 7. True. 8. False. (It was the village of Llandaff.) 9. False. (They crashed because the driver didn’t expect the road to make a turn.) 10. False. (It was a real nightmare.)

Exercise 61

A. 1. b; 2. a; 3. d; 4. e; 5. c

B. 1. c; 2. d

Exercise 62

A. 1. f; 2. d; 3. g; 4. a; 5. h; 6. b; 7. c; 8. e

B. 1. Тебе бы лучше извиниться, ведь ошибся (ошиблась) именно ты. 2. На твоём месте я бы прежде всего убедился, что дверь надёжно заперта. 3. Мне нравится держать на письменном столе несколько словарей, чтобы ими можно было легко воспользоваться. 4. Салли мне по-своему нравится, но я не могу сказать, что мы близкие друзья. 5. Школы в Англии находятся в ведении местных органов образования. 6. Вы вполне уверены, что фильм стоит посмотреть? Мне бы не хотелось напрасно терять время. 7. Каждое утро школа оживает от детских голосов. 8. Вдобавок к математике и русскому нам придётся сдавать экзамен по истории.

C. 1. In a way the day has been (was) a success. 2. I’d better wait for you here: it’s raining outside. 3. Lying on the sofa with a book I always keep a bag of sweets within easy reach. 4. Let’s first of all make sure that we can buy tickets for this train. 5. Who runs this tennis club? 6. In the morning the forest came alive with birds’ singing. 7. Are you certain that I should go with you? 8. In addition to two dogs they have three cats.

Exercise 63

1. except; 2. besides; 3. besides; 4. except; 5. besides; 6. except; 7. except

Exercise 64

1. awaiting; 2. wait; 3. waiting; 4. await; 5. awaits; 6. waiting; 7. awaiting

Exercise 65

1. had better; 2. would you rather; 3. Had not he better; 4. would rather; 5. had better; 6. had better; 7. would rather; 8. had better, would rather

Exercise 68 (Sample version)

1. He remembered them so well because they were lovely holidays and he had a lot of holidays like them from when he was 17. 2. Because almost all the family were Norwegians by blood, spoke Norwegian and most of his relatives lived there. 3. There were no commercial flights at that time. 4. She had to think everything over beforehand and make all the bookings in advance. In those days people didn’t do it by telephone, but by letter. 5. They were a big party and they had to take all the things they might need with them as there were no shops on the island where they spent their summers. 6. To get to Norway they had to cross the North Sea, and Newcastle is a port from which it’s the shortest distance across the sea. 7. Because he doesn’t want to confuse his readers. 8. The crossing was often rough and most of the family got seasick. 9. They wanted to spend some time with their grandparents. 10. Because the journey in a small boat was pleasant and they could admire the views around them. 11. Possibly, because it was connected with his childhood memories, the place was quiet and lonely, the children were free to do what they wanted, play and swim. The place was also familiar and felt like home.

Exercise 70

1. on foot; 2. a single ticket; 3. a sleeper (sleeping car); 4. the time of arrival; 5. destination; 6. to go through the customs; 7. to do last-minute shopping; 8. to pay excess luggage; 9. fellow passengers; 10. delay or cancellation of a train; 11. bed and breakfast; 12. to check in at a hotel; 13. a suite; 14. a room with a view of the sea; 15. available facilities; 16. a flight to Oslo; 17. a long-distance train; 18. (well) in advance; 19. to board (get on) the train on time; 20. he is/gets travelsick in a car

Exercise 71

1. trip; 2. travel; 3. voyage; 4. journey; 5. trip; 6. voyage; 7. travel; 8. trip; 9. voyage; 10. travel; 11. journey; 12. trip; 13. travels; 14. voyage; 15. trip

Exercise 72

1. At a railway station booking office. 2. At a coach station. 3. A railway or a coach station. 4. At a hotel. 5. At an airport. 6. On a train. 7. At a booking office. 8. At a railway booking office. 9. At a railway station. 10. On a ship.

Exercise 73 (Sample version)

1. A: Can I have a ticket (a seat) to Manchester?

B: ...

A: A day return, please.

B: ...

A: When is the train? (When does the train depart/leave?)

B: ...

A: And what’s the time of arrival?

B: ...

A: Do I have to change?

B: ...

A: Do you take cards?

B: ...

A: Thank you.

B: ...

2. A: Have you got a vacant room?

B: ...

A: I’d like a room from Tuesday to Friday.

B: ...

A: 150 pounds for a single room?

B: ...

A: Does it include service?

B: ...

A: Is there a shower?

B: ...

A: No, thanks. A shower is quite all right. Are there any facilities I can use?

B: ...

A: Can I have a room with a view?

B: ...

A: Shall I pay now?

B: ...

A: Thanks very much.

Exercise 74

1. Тебя укачало во время плавания? 2. Алиса никогда не ездит на машине, её часто укачивает. 3. Мои родители всегда летают самолётом, их никогда не укачивает. 4. Моя бабушка не любит ездить на автобусе, там её часто укачивает.

Exercise 79Р> 1. This magnet ticket can be used on local trains and on certain underground lines. It’s a day single sold at £17. The ticket allows one adult to travel from Edinburgh to York. The ticket class is standard. It is valid until 9 April, 2014.

2. This magnet ticket is for travelling by local trains and the underground. It has to be used within one day and within zones 1-4 from Sydenham, London. The card can’t be used in peak hours. The class of the ticket is standard, and the day when the journey took place is 27 February, 2013. The price is £8.

3. This is a ticket for a bus tour of Edinburgh which includes the Edinburgh Castle, the Royal Mile and the Palace of Holyrood House. The tours are organized by the Guide Friday Tourism Centre. It’s a ticket for an adult and it can be used any day of the week. The ticket gives you a 1 pound discount if you want to go on such a tour again. There’s the address and the telephone number of the Guide Friday Tourism Centre, which you can use for enquiries.

Exercise 84 (Sample version)

Guests can also be requested:

— not to replace the furniture;

— not to leave the doors and windows open;

— not to eat meals in the rooms;

— not to play musical instruments;

— not to keep pets;

— not to take out hotel towels, etc.

Exercise 86

1. e; 2. c; 3. i; 4. f; 5. j; 6. d; 7. b; 8. h; 9. g; 10. a

Unit 6

Exercise 4

1. E; 2. B; 3. C; 4. A; 5. D

Exercise 5

1. trembles; 2. confused; 3. bare; 4. nightmare; 5. our destination; 6. seasick; 7. the annual meeting; 8. flowed; 9. thrills me; 10. embraced me

Exercise 6

A. 1. to travel by land; 2. a return ticket; 3. a dining car; 4. a nonsmoker; 5. the time of departure; 6. to come to the railway station (well) in advance; 7. to check in for the flight; 8. to fill in the declaration; 9. to weigh the luggage; 10. to pay excess luggage; 11. a luggage van; 12. a dutyfree shop; 13. fellow passengers; 14. to while away the time on the journey; 15. to travel light; 16. to cancel the train; 17. a delay of the flight; 18. to miss the boat; 19. a voyage; 20. a through train; 21. lost-and-found/the lost property office

B. 1. to stay at the hotel; 2. to book a double room for a/the week; 3. to check in at a hotel; 4. a single with a bath; 5. a double bed; 6. a hotel manager; 7. facilities available; 8. a swimming pool; 9. a colour TV; 10. to sign in a register; 11. to check out

Exercise 7

1. the; 2. a, —; 3. —, —; 4. the; 5. an, a; 6. —; 7. a, the; 8. a/—, —, —; 9. —; 10. a, an, a

Exercise 8

1. by; 2. on; 3. of; 4. with; 5. of; 6. at; 7. into; 8. to; 9. out; 10. on

Exercise 10

1. had better; 2. had better; 3. had better; 4. had better; 5. had better; 6. would rather; 7. would rather; 8. would rather

Exercise 11 (Sample version)

a) 1. You know the way so you should give her directions. 2. You should consult a dentist as soon as possible. 3. You should buy some tomatoes, carrots and cucumbers. Here’s the money. 4. You should post it on your way to school. 5. You should try to get up earlier on weekdays. 6. She should wash them before she wears them again.

b) 1. You should have given Ann directions when she asked you. 2. You should have consulted a dentist when you understood that there was something wrong with it. 3. You should have bought some tomatoes, carrots and cucumbers when you were in the supermarket. 4. You should have posted it when you went to the post office yesterday. 5. You should have got up earlier today. 6. She should have washed them before she put them on.

Exercise 12

A. 1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b

B. 1. radio and television; 2. daily; 3. evening; 4. national; 5. daily; 6. popular (tabloids); 7. special interest (specialist)

Exercise 13

1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. a; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8. b

Exercise 14

1. They give all sorts of useful information. 2. Information on such popular subjects as weather, TV programmes, prices, fashion, gardening, show business, etc. 3. They either take a serious line or a more popular (less serious) one. 4. British papers tend not to combine the serious and the popular approach. 5. In popular papers one can find more photographs, larger eye-catching headlines, the print may be larger and the stories shorter than in serious papers. 6. Serious and popular, which depends on how the papers treat the news. Daily and weekly, which depends on how often they are published. Morning and evening, which depends on when they are published. Local, national and even international, which depends on where they are sold. General interest and specialist newspapers, which depends on the interests of people for whom they are meant. 7. The symbol of the British press is Fleet Street — a street in London which used to be home of many national newspapers. The place was good for paper publishing as it was conveniently situated close to railway stations and some important institutions. 8. The Times, The Guardian, The Financial Times, The Independent, The Daily Telegraph, The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, The Sunday Times. 9. Sunday papers are special weekly editions coming out on Sundays. 10. Most of serious British papers are much thicker than Russian papers. Their sections are separated from each other.

Exercise 16

Some of the things that Prince William likes are: working on a farm, Scotland, going out sometimes, Aston Villa football team.

Some of the things that he dislikes: the media intruding into his life.

Exercise 17

2. his family; 5. his hobbies; 9. what kind of people he dislikes

Exercise 18

1. the media won’t invade his privacy; 2. the gap year; 3. the highlight of the year; 4. did all the chores; 5. community feel; 6. after your degree; 7. I don’t care about their backgrounds; 8. I’m looking forward to being able to manage my own time in a relaxed atmosphere; 9. I’m not a party animal; 10. media intrusion into your student life; 11. the way the media treated me; 12. too curious and intrusive

Exercise 20

А. 1. Жаловаться на то, что музыка играет слишком громко; на то, что рейс задерживается; на то, что деньги не выплачиваются вовремя;

2. мечтать о том, чтобы поехать в отпуск; о том, чтобы взять выходной; о том, чтобы найти хорошую работу;

3. упрекать кого-то за то, что тот пришёл слишком поздно; за опоздание на поезд; за то, что тот плохо написал контрольную;

4. удержать кого-то от того, чтобы сказать правду; от того, чтобы он попал в беду; от ссоры;

5. преуспеть в постановке пьесы; в том, чтобы написать хороший рассказ; в ремонте велосипеда;

6. быть способным; работать изо всех сил; сделать правильный выбор; вежливо разговаривать с людьми;

7. с нетерпением ждать того, чтобы отправиться домой; похода в Британский музей; того, чтобы позвать гостей;

8. возражать против того, чтобы тратить деньги; против переезда в другой город; против того, чтобы смотреть телевизор так поздно;

9. привыкнуть вставать рано; читать по-английски; есть китайскую пищу.

B. 1. I object to moving to another city. 2. I dream of (about) learning several languages. 3. I complain of the flight being delayed. 4. I don’t blame him for spoiling the party (for the spoiled party). 5. I succeeded in writing a good story. 6. Did you manage to stop (keep, prevent) them from quarrelling? 7. I respect people who are capable of telling the truth. 8. I’m used to reading English books in the original. 9. I look forward (I’m looking forward) to seeing the new film. 10. Whom do you blame for missing the train? 11. In this restaurant nobody complains of bad cooking. 12. I look forward (I’m looking forward) to getting his letter. 13. Nobody could keep (stop, prevent) him from making this terrible mistake. 14. You succeeded in organizing a great party.

Exercise 21

1. in, in; 2. for, from; 3. to; 4. of; 5. of; 6. to, of; 7. in; 8. of, of; 9. in; 10. of (about); 11. from

Exercise 23

1. Jane blames Simon for her coming too early. 2. We blame the shop assistant for our buying a faulty bike. 3. Robert blames his granny for his sending the telegram to the wrong address. 4. Dan blames Colin for having to mend his trainers. 5. Boris blames us for his mixing up the two words. 6. I blame my younger sister for my losing the keys. 7. Alice blames her teacher for (her) getting a bad mark.

Exercise 24

1. I’m looking (I look) forward to meeting you again. 2. Do you mind my/me turning/switching off the television? It’s time to go to bed. 3. Did you have a good time dancing at the disco? 4. Don’t complain of having little time. You can always find time if you want to. 5. Try and prevent (keep, stop) Max from going camping. He is not feeling well. 6. Thank you for coming. 7. I think you should apologize for being so rude. 8. She has always been interested in language learning. 9. Will anybody object to my/me coming a little later? 10. The police stopped the burglar from getting into the house through the window. 11. He is not used to washing up after meals. 12. I’m guilty of many things, but I’m not guilty of lying.

Exercise 25

1. to buy; 2. to come/arrive; 3. to carry; 4. to water; 5. to hire/take; 6. to learn/begin; 7. to explain; 8. to be/travel; 9. to see/ notice; 10. to speak

Exercise 26

1. Fred asked me to close ... 2. Justin reminded his younger sister to take her books ... 3. Paul advised Bob to take ... 4. Max ordered us to surround ... 5. Lizzy’s mother forced her to go ... 6. The head teacher expected/told me to come ... 7. Every driver is required by law to have ... 8. Pauline’s friend reminded her to translate ... 9. Mrs Fowles told/ warned ... 10. The experienced teacher encouraged/advised her younger colleague to explain ...

Exercise 27

1. to do; 2. seeing; 3. to do; 4. playing; 5. to give; smoking; 6. to be; 7. drive; 8. finding; 9. to go shopping; 10. to read; 11. smiling

Exercise 28

offer: 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11

suggest: 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12

Exercise 29

1. suggested; 2. offered; 3. offered; 4. offer; 5. suggests (suggested); 6. suggests (suggested); 7. offered; 8. suggests (suggested); 9. offered; 10. suggests (suggested)

Exercise 30

1. Mother suggests a visit to the theatre (going to the theatre). 2. Mother suggests our going to the theatre (that we should go to the theatre). 3. I offer to buy tickets for this performance tomorrow. 4. At the end of the interview they offered me (I was offered) a job. 5. Sally suggested our going (that we should go) for a swim. 6. Dan suggested a different plan. 7. Willy: a) offered to do it this way; b) suggested doing it this way. 8. Polly offered Mrs Stein 20 dollars for the picture. 9. He didn’t even offer me a cup of tea. 10. I suggest we should stop (our stopping) for a cup of coffee.

Exercise 32

1. Sorry, I’m not used to talking to strangers. 2. He got used to reading serious books when he was a child. 3. When he was young, he used to ride a bike to work and he liked it. 4. We used to go to a coffee shop on Saturdays and eat tasty cakes. 5. I used not to like flying. 6. I’m afraid I’m not used to sea voyages. 7. In India we got used to riding elephants. 8. It’s good to get used to watching English films.

Exercise 33

1. watching; 2. to telephone; 3. to switch; 4. travelling; 5. to ring; 6. dancing; 7. to post; 8. meeting; 9. to lock; 10. seeing

Exercise 34

1. eating; 2. to say; 3. to take; 4. talking; 5. to look; 6. crying; 7. to get; 8. to pick up

Exercise 35

1. telling; 2. to tell; 3. to inform; 4. being; 5. taking; 6. to ask; 7. staying; 8. to ask

Exercise 36

1. to visit; 2. bringing; 3. taking; 4. to go; 5. to watch; 6. to use; 7. removing; 8. smoking

Exercise 39 (Sample version)

1. Alice: ...

Dan: Hello! It’s Dan here.

A: ...

D: I’m fine, thank you. Is Sally in? Can I speak to her?

A: ...

D: Sorry, unfortunately I’ll be busy after 5.

A: ...

D: Yes, please. Could you tell her that I’d like to have a word with her?

A: ...

D: Thank you. Bye!

A: ...

2. Alice: Hello? Who’s that speaking?

Pauline: ...

A: Yes, he is. Hold the line, please. I’ll call him.

Robin: Hello, it’s Robin here.

P: ...

R: Hello? Robin speaking... Hello? Is that you, Pauline? Can you hear me well?

P: ...

R: Thanks for calling.

P: ...

R: See you.

Exercise 41

1 — phone box; 2 — telephone; 3 — mobile phone (cellphone); 4 — phone cards

1. A phone box is a small structure containing a telephone for use by the public.

2. A telephone is a device used for speaking to someone in a different place.

3. A mobile phone is a telephone which one can carry with one.

4. A phone card is a plastic card which is used in some pay telephones instead of money.

Exercise 42

1. g; 2. d; 3. b; 4. e; 5. a; 6. f; 7. c

Exercise 43

1. Подождите, пока я не буду готов(а). 2. Крепость продержалась шесть недель. 3. Идите (продолжайте идти) вниз по дороге, пока не дойдёте до железнодорожного вокзала. 4. Джон придержал собаку. 5. Не вешайте трубку. 6. Дождь шёл не переставая целый день. 7. Он поздоровался и протянул мне руку. 8. Алику удалось сдержать свой гнев и избежать драки. 9. Мы должны сдерживать врага до наступления темноты. 10. Маленькая девочка держала маму за руку. 11. Начинайте, я подожду здесь до тех пор, пока не придут остальные.

Exercise 44

1. on; 2. out; 3. in; 4. on; 5. on; 6. in; 7. off; 8. on; 9. on; 10. off

Exercise 45

A. limited — ограниченный; to head (for) — направляться; injures — травмы, повреждения; incapable — неспособный; distant — удалённый, отдалённый; vacancy — вакансия; uncomplimentary — нелестный

C. 1. Выбор был весьма ограниченным: мы могли поехать либо в Оксфорд, либо в Кембридж. 2. Мальчики направились домой. 3. Боб упал с лестницы, и у него серьёзные травмы. 4. Макс не может сосредоточиться на том, что он делает. Он не способен ничего выучить. 5. Она изучает далёкие звёзды. 6. У нас есть вакансия для машинистки, но нет вакансии для секретарей. (Но все места секретарей заняты.) 7. Мой учитель весьма нелестно отозвался о моей контрольной работе, хотя не очень-то строго её критиковал.

Exercise 47

Nouns: 1. f; 2. c; 3. d; 4. a; 5. e; 6. b

Verbs: 1. a; 2. d; 3. e; 4. b; 5. c; 6. f

Adjectives: 1. c; 2. g; 3. d; 4. f; 5. a; 6. b; 7. e

Adverbs: 1. c; 2. a; 3. d; 4. b

Exercise 48

1. heading; 2. ability (abilities); 3. obvious; 4. passionately; 5. memories; 6. enclose; 7. glorious; 8. gifted; 9. distant; 10. floating; 11. idle; 12. point; 13. flame(s); 14. absorbed; 15. marvellous

Exercise 49

1. on; 2. to; 3. of; 4. out; 5. into; 6. for; 7. with; 8. in

Exercise 50 (Sample version)

1. Sorry, he is almost illiterate. 2. He finds it marvellous. 3. She wastes so much money on clothes and entertainments. 4. I do. She was told they didn’t have any vacancy. 5. He says it will be some distant land. 6. I think there were some nice photos enclosed (with it). 7. I think the answer is obvious. It was really glorious. 8. He was a very gifted commander, who helped a lot to win the war.

Exercise 51

un-: uncomplimentary, unflavoured, uncreative, unexciting, unfulfilling, uninteresting, unpopular, unprestigious, unrewarding, unrequired, unlimited, unwrapped, uninjured; in-: inaccurate, incapable, independent, inexpensive; il-: illiterate; im-: immoral; ir-: irregular

Exercise 52

1. My parents don’t let me smoke. 2. Are you sure your mum will let you go with us? 3. ... her granny did not let her. 4. He never lets me drive his car. 6. Let me explain.

Exercise 53

1. lying; 2. lay; 3. laid; 4. lie; 5. laying; 6. lay; 7. lay; 8. lying; 9. lied; 10. laid; 11. lie; 12. laid

Exercise 54

1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. d; 5. a; 6. d

Exercise 55

1. c; 2. c; 3. a; 4. d; 5. d

Exercise 57

A. The moment when he wrote down his first story.

B. 1. f; 2. a; 3. d; 4. b; 5. e; 6. g; 7. c

Exercise 58

A. 1. d; 2. g; 3. e; 4. c; 5. a; 6. f; 7. b

B. 1. hold the view; 2. it’s little wonder; 3. in your own good time; 4. turn down the offer; 5. headed for; 6. a month’s leave; 7. apart from that

Exercise 59

1. hold the view; 2. was given a week’s leave; 3. headed for; 4. it was little wonder; 5. to turn down his offers; 6. apart from that; 7. in my own good time

Exercise 60

1. Boarding. 2. Talking in the dormitories and running in the corridors. 3. They didn’t think much of it. They thought the boy was incapable of putting his words on paper, that his vocabulary was limited, he was idle and illiterate and didn’t have any interesting ideas. 4. As he was not going to become a doctor, a lawyer, a scientist, an engineer or some other kind of professional, he saw little point in wasting time in these universities. 5. He wanted to go abroad. 6. To East Africa. 7. He saw great sandy deserts, Arab soldiers on camels, palm trees and flying fish. 8. He became a war pilot in RAF. 9. He flew for about 3 years (from 1939 to 1941) and stopped flying because of his injuries. 10. He was sent to Washington, D.C. as assistant air attache. 11. C. S. Forester, a famous British writer (did). He wanted Dahl to tell him about Dahl’s war adventures. 12. He was too much concentrated on the duck he was eating and he thought he was not good at telling stories aloud. 13. He called it “A Piece of Cake”. 14. It was The Saturday Evening Post. 15. C. S. Forester wrote that the story was marvellous and that R. Dahl was a gifted writer.

Exercise 61

1. f; 2. i; 3. d; 4. j; 5. a; 6. g; 7. b; 8. h; 9. c; 10. e

Exercise 62

1. invents; 2. obeyed; 3. entered; 4. depends; 5. trained; 6. shot; 7. crashed, burst; 8. write; 9. required, found; 10. floated; 11. seemed; 12. received; 13. enclose

Exercise 63

1. Arabic; 2. Arab; 3. Arab; 4. Arabic; 5. Arabic; 6. Arabian; 7. Arabian; 8. Arab, Arabic; 9. Arabian; 10. Arabian; 11. Arab

Exercise 65

1. Because he was not going to become a writer, he didn’t get any special education and became a writer by chance. 2. Because his school was traditional for those times, with a lot of fierce discipline and strict rules that had to be obeyed. He was much criticized by his teachers and felt unhappy. 3. All his written papers in English composition were severely and sarcastically criticized by his teachers. 4. He didn’t go to university as he didn’t want to become a professional person and was not going to waste his time. 5. Because they promised to send him abroad which he wanted to do. 6. He saw a lot of unusual and marvellous things he had never seen before and had dreamt of seeing them all his life. 7. He thought that was his duty. 8. He had been badly injured. 9. Because Dahl had taken part in the war actions himself and C. S. Forester hadn’t and the writer wanted Americans who had just entered the war to know more about the war and help the countries fighting with Hitler. 10. He was thrilled and it was a challenge for him. 11. Because he didn’t think he was a good storyteller and it was difficult for him to talk and eat at the same time. 12. Because he had a gift for writing and was writing about the things he knew only too well. 13. Because the first story was a huge success.

Exercise 70

The Second World War began in September 1939. Britain was involved in the war from the beginning. The USSR (Russia) became a member of the Allied Forces in the summer 1941 after the German troops moved onto the territory of the country and began bombing it. The USA entered the war in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on the American base Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The war ended when Germany having surrendered in May 1945 with the Allied Forces occupying Berlin, the capital of Germany. But Germany’s ally Japan went on fighting. In August 1945 the American Army dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Thanks to the efforts of the Soviet Army in the Far East Japan surrendered as well.

Exercise 71

1. the mass media; 2. a headline; 3. an edition; 4. an issue; 5. a review; 6. a feature; 7. an obituary; 8. the leading article; 9. a daily; 10. a tabloid; 11. a broadsheet; 12. a channel; 13. a remote control; 14. a soap opera; 15. a newscaster (a newsreader)

Exercise 72

A. 1. various editions; 2. current events; 3. foreign (international) news; 4. home news; 5. advertisement(s); 6. classified advertisements; 7. strip cartoons; 8. cartoons; 9. comments; 10. politics and economics; 11. review; 12. readers’ letters; 13. recipes for cooking; 14. an accurate, informative, impartial edition (issue); 15. to give a wide coverage of current events; 16. to cater for all opinions (to satisfy any taste); 17. a freelance journalist; 18. to subscribe to one’s favourite editions; 19. to provide (offer) information on various subjects; 20. to keep an eye on events; 21. a feature (article)

B. 1. mass media; 2. to broadcast TV programmes; 3. to show programmes live; 4. to show programmes in recording; 5. cable and satellite television; 6. to switch over from channel to channel (to surf the channels); 7. a wide choice of programmes; 8. a music request programme; 9. a feature film; 10. a quiz (game) show; 11. a TV viewer; 12. a commentator; 13. a newscaster (newsreader); 14. to be concerned about something; 15. to be addicted to television; 16. violence and crime; 17. commercials on television

Exercise 74

A. 1. National newspapers are sold in the whole country, but local newspapers are mostly sold in a certain area of the country.

2. Morning papers come out and are sold in the morning, but evening papers come out and are sold late in the afternoon and in the evening.

3. Serious papers present information in a more serious manner but popular papers present information in an easier, more popular manner. Also popular papers tend to be smaller in size (they are usually tabloids) and publish more pictures, cartoons and other material designed to entertain.

4. Magazines are thicker and more colourful than papers. Their pages are held together with staples. They are published on better paper and usually have a lot of photos and pictures. Magazines tend to be special interest editions. They are much more expensive than newspapers.

5. Announcements just give out some information orally or in writing, but advertisements give out information to sell a product or a service.

6. A report gives an objective statement about something but a comment analyses events.

7. A serial is a written or broadcast story appearing in parts, but a strip cartoon is a story in pictures.

B. 1. Advertisements are typical of newspapers but commercials appear on television.

2. TV journalists make all sorts of programmes for television. Art critics may appear on television too, but they speak (or write) specifically about arts, analysing a certain book, film, picture, etc.

3. A TV commentator usually analyses certain events, but a newscaster reads out the news in the news programmes.

4. A quiz show is a TV game where players answer questions and get prizes for playing well, but a talk show is a TV programme where a certain subject is discussed.

5. A music programme is a programme where music is performed at the choice of the people who make it, but a music request programme performs mostly the pieces ordered by the TV viewers or radio listeners.

6. A serial is any kind of story appearing in parts, but a soap opera is a television or radio programme about the daily life and troubles of characters in it. Such programmes are broadcast regularly.

7. A TV fan is just a television lover, but a person addicted to television has an uncontrolled love of TV and stays glued to the screen for hours.

Exercise 75

1. to turn the television off; 2. to turn the volume up; 3. to cater for everyone’s taste; 4. to discuss current events in detail; 5. home news; 6. to love TV, to be a TV fan, to be addicted to television

Exercise 76 (Sample version)

1. How to understand new technology. The article may be about the new developments in the field of technology.

2. Information from or about computer sites. The article may be about new websites that have just appeared in the Internet or the new information in the sites.

3. The delegates of a certain conference or meeting taking place in Blackpool are discussing plans and projects of their future work. The article may be about the above-mentioned conference or meeting.

4. A RAF man becomes a member of National Council. The article may be about how he became a National Council member, his political career.

5. Military vehicles are displayed in an exhibition. The article may be about a new exhibition of military equipment opened at some place.

6. Pension reform is introduced and discussed. The article may be about a new pension reform.

7. Time has come to look at NATO and its activity from a different point of view. The article may be about the position of NATO in the modern world.

8. The best songs of week or month. The article may be about the regular rating of pop singers (groups).

Exercise 79

1. c; 2. a; 3. b