Ключи к упражнениям учебника - Приложение

Английский язык - Книга для учителя 11 класс - Углублённый уровень - О. В. Афанасьева - 2017 год

Ключи к упражнениям учебника - Приложение

Unit One

Exercise 2.

1. b; 2. a; 3. b; 4. c; 5. c; 6. c; 7. b; 8. a

Exercise 3.

true: 3, 5, 7; false: 1, 2; not mentioned in the text: 4, 6, 8

Exercise 5.

1. Baku, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR, now the capital of the Independent Republic of Azerbaijan

2. in Moscow, at the Moscow Conservatoire

3. the cello, conducting and composition

4. In 1950, at the age of 23

5. was restricted from foreign touring, was sent on a tour of small towns in Siberia and in 1974 left the Soviet Union with his wife and children and settled in the United States

6. the younger generation of cellists

7. 1977 ... 1994

8. on television throughout the world

9. restored in 1990, although he and his family had already become American citizens

10. international awards

11. April 27, 2007

Exercise 7.

1. b; 2. b; 3. c; 4. b; 5. c; 6. a; 7. c; 8. b

Exercise 9.

1. B; 2. C; 3. E; 5. F; 6. D; 7. A

Exercise 12.

true: 1, 2, 6, 8, 11, 12; false: 3, 7, 9, 14; not mentioned in the text: 4, 5, 10, 13

Exercise 13.

1. a score; 2. to write off the top of one’s head; 3. second thoughts; 4. to take lodgings; 5. a sabbatical; 6. to hit the road; 7. to cut a dash; 8. a clavier; 9. blindfolded; 10. to stagger away exhausted; 11. torrential rain; 12. to chaperone; 13. rubbish; 14. a convention; 15. a valet; 16. to fall out with somebody; 17. a pact; 18. to be overwhelmed; 19. to live hand to mouth

Exercise 17.

1. to flirt with graceful dignity

2. intensely serious

3. air of seriousness

4. irresistibly amusing

5. to yearn to hear sth

6. to make one’s flesh creep

7. not to want somebody to guess my ignorance

8. I hit upon ... a good idea

9. a) to keep one’s eyes on sb; b) to have eyes fixed on sb

10. to throw a little snigger

11. humour that had escaped the others

12. the slightest hint on his part

13. to give way to something

14. to send somebody into fits

15. amid a perfect shriek of laughter

16. to be insulted

17. a trying situation

18. to leave the house in an unostentatious manner

Exercise 21.

1. to; 2. beyond; 3. To; 4. at; 5. with; 6. in; 7. -; 8. on/against; 9. over/at, in; 10. of; 11. in; 12. by; 13. to; 14. with; 15. at

Exercise 22.

annoying - досадный, раздражающий; earnestly - серьёзно; earnestness - серьёзность; fiercely - яростно; fit (v) - подходить, соответствовать; fitting - подходящий; ignorant - невежественный, незнающий; ignoramus - невежда; incidentally - случайно, между прочим; indignation - негодование; insult (v) - оскорблять; insulting - обидный, оскорбительный; resistance - сопротивление; resistant - сопротивляющийся; roar (n) - сильный шум, рёв; roaring - ревущий; swearing - ругань

Exercise 23.

1. The dress doesn’t fit me. 2. Stop swearing in front of the children. 3. The patient roared with pain. 4. The city resisted the enemy for two weeks. 5. She is ignorant about computers. 6. I must go now. Incidentally, if you want that book, I’ll bring it next time. 7. You’ll insult her if you don’t go to her party. 8. I expressed my indignation at being unfairly dismissed. 9. He annoyed me because he kept interrupting. 10. I hit my knee against the chair. 11. It was one of the strangest incidents in my life. 12. The house was guarded by a fierce dog... . 13. I’m sure he was absolutely earnest when he said he would never come here again. 14. What lies further beyond the mountains?

Exercise 24.

1. earnest; 2. resent/resenting; 3. annoyed; 4. indignation; 5. insulted; 6. roaring; 7. fierce; 8. swearing; 9. beyond; 10. incidentally; 11. hit/hitting; 12. ignorant; 13. fits

Exercise 25.

1. Don’t stay there beyond midnight. 2. The salad tastes bitter. How annoying! 3. The enemy offered strong resistance but it was broken down. 4. He swore to say nothing. 5. Jack couldn’t resist the temptation and looked into the dark room. 6. Lora’s smile was irresistible. She knew she could make them do whatever she wanted. 7. The governess shook her head in annoyance - the children’s behaviour was an insult (insulting) to their parents. 8. He was a true ignoramus. 9. The whole family were indignant at Ann’s behaviour. 10. I swear to you I have never done such a thing.

Exercise 26.

A. 1. to roar; 2. to snigger; 3. to titter; 4. a fit of laughter; 5. a shriek of laughter; B. 1. хмыкнуть; 2. хихикать; 3. громко смеяться, гоготать; 4. широко улыбаться; 5. самодовольно улыбаться, ухмыляться; C. 1. snigger; 2. roar, guffaw, shriek of laughter, fit of laughter; 3. smirk, snigger; 4. fit of laughter, giggle, shriek of laughter; 5. giggle, titter; 6. chuckle

Exercise 30.

A. 1. bring; 2. fetch; 3. took; 4. take/bring; 5. fetch; 6. brought; 7. take; 8. brought; 9. fetch; B. 1. crying; 2. wept; 3. crying; 4. sobbing/crying; 5. weep/cry; 6. sobbing/crying; 7. cry; 8. sobbed; 9. wept; C. 1. yearned; 2. wish; 3. wish; 4. longed; 5. longed; 6. yearned; 7. wish; 8. longed; 9. yearned

Exercise 31.

1. Он нанёс нам ответный удар. 2. Он яростно отбивался (раздавал удары направо и налево). 3. Мне пришёл в голову план. 4. Могу я попросить у вас сигарету? 5. Я в жизни никого не ударил, но ему я дал резкий отпор и поставил (ему) синяк под глазом. 6. Президент с резкой критикой набросился на тех, кто критиковал его экономические реформы. 7. Джеймсу вдруг пришло в голову, как можно разрешить эту проблему. 8. Знаешь, он попытается попросить у нас наличных денег. 9. Она боялась, что он случайно может обнаружить правду. 10. Она подняла руку, стараясь нанести удар.

Exercise 32.

1. out; 2. back; 3. on/upon; 4. out; 5. for; 6. on; 7. on; 8. back; 9. for; 10. out

Exercise 33.

declarative: a) positive: 7, 9; b) negative: 1, 5; interrogative: 2, 3, 8, 12; imperative: 6, 11; exclamatory: 4, 10

Exercise 34.

1 - ! 2 - ? 3 - ? 4 - ? 5 - . 6 - . 7-. 8 - . 9 - ./! 10 - . 11 - ? 12 - ? 13 - ./!

Exercise 35.

1. subject - operas, expressed by a noun; predicate (verbal) - were written; 2. subject - Claude Debussy, expressed by a proper noun; predicate (nominal) - is the key figure; 3. subject - violins, expressed by a noun; predicate (verbal) - produce; 4. subject - music, expressed by a noun; predicate (verbal) - has developed; 5. subject - music, expressed by a noun; predicate (nominal) - is difficult; 6. subject - melody, expressed by a noun; predicate (verbal) - may have; 7. subject - dancing, expressed by gerund (-ing form); predicate (verbal) - plays; 8. subject - composers, expressed by a noun; predicate (verbal) - have developed; 9. subject - to play, expressed by an infinitive; predicate (nominal) - is art; 10. subject - I, expressed by a pronoun; predicate (verbal) - love

Exercise 36.

1. adverbial modifier of time; 2. direct object; 3. adverbial modifier of place; 4. subject, attribute; 5. indirect object, prepositional object; 6. nominal predicate; 7. adverbial modifier of place; 8. attribute; 9. subject; 10. predicate, adverbial modifier of place

Exercise 37.

1. ... always carries ...; 2. Jamie occasionally ...; 3. ... are generally ...; 4. ... never travels ...; 5. ... don’t usually ...; 6. ... is seldom ...; 7. ... room yet? 8. ... is always ...; 9. ... is hardly ever ...; 10. ... always welcomes ...; 11. ... often improve ...; 12. ... generally run ...; 13. ... never eats ...; 14. ... already prepared ...; 15. ... is generally ... .

Exercise 38.

1. conductor; 2. wealthy; 3. first; 4. composing; 5. largely; 6. conducting; 7. disliked; 8. disastrous; 9. nervous; 10. confidence; 11. compositions; 12. highly; 13. perfection; 14. legendary

Exercise 39.

1. their; 2. first; 3. quietest; 4. have ever been; 5. different; 6. went; 7. met; 8. was sitting; 9. his; 10. did; 11. knows; 12. children

Exercise 40.

1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. c; 5. d; 6. d; 7. b; 8. d; 9. b

Exercise 41.

1. c; 2. b; 3. b; 4. a; 5. c; 6. c; 7. a; 8. b; 9. a; 10. b; 11. a

Exercise 42.

1. had been sold; 2. was allowed; 3. found; 4. felt; 5. had; 6. knew; 7. feeling; 8. had given; 9. staring; 10. carrying; 11. was satisfied

Exercise 43.

1.

- What are you reading, Alec?

- Angels and Demons by Dan Brown.

- How long have you been reading it?

- About a fortnight.

- It is such an interesting novel. I have never read anything that (so) exciting (gripping).

2. It was midnight. Joanna’s brothers and sisters were sleeping peacefully in their beds. Joanna couldn’t sleep. She had been lying with her eyes closed since ten o’clock. She lay thinking about her tomorrow’s visit to the theatre. She could hardly believe she would see the famous performers dancing.

3. I know the man (who is) standing near the window. We spent our holidays together at the Mediterranean last year. We swam a lot, sunbathed and had exciting boat trips to various islands.

4. On arrival you will be taken from the airport to the hotel by bus. Supper will be served at half past seven. If the flight is delayed, you will be informed in time.

5. - I would like you to go shopping and buy two loaves of white bread, a bag of flour, a tin of fruit and three kilos of new potatoes. They are so tasty.

- OK. I’ll do it. Where is the money?

- It is on the table.

6. Uncle Tom might phone tonight but it’s very unlikely. I think he will arrive in Rome late at night and won’t like to disturb us. But he is sure to call on us tomorrow morning.

7. I wonder what weather we are going to have tomorrow (what the weather will be like). I think it will be rather chilly, it may rain. Such weather is typical of Moscow in autumn. Don’t forget to take your umbrella when you leave.

8. - If I were you, I should (would) start learning French: you are so good at languages.

- I’m afraid I can’t do it now because I have to spend a lot of time on Mathematics. You know I have problems there.

- Are you planning to learn foreign languages after you finish school?

- I’m thinking about it.

9. When I left home in the morning, there was no sign of rain. The sun was shining brightly and the sky was blue and clear. Several hours later a strong cold wind started blowing, the sky got overcast (covered with clouds) and it began raining heavily. I was so sorry I had left my umbrella at home. (I wish I had not left...).

10. From the moment the musician appeared on the stage we couldn’t take our eyes off him. We watched him come to the piano, sit on the bench and open the instrument. The music we heard then was the most impressive (music) I had ever heard.

Exercise 46.

1. Lubov Kazarnovskaya is an opera singer. 2. Vladimir Spivakov is a conductor and a musician. 3. Maya Plisetskaya is a ballet dancer. 4. Dmitry Hvorostovsky is an opera singer. 5. Alla Pugacheva is a pop singer. 6. Nikolai Tsiskaridze is a ballet dancer. 7. Pelageya is a pop singer.

Exercise 48.

A. 1. violin; 2. viola; 3. cello; 4. double bass; 5. harp; 6. piccolo; 7. flute; 8. oboe; 9. clarinet; 10. bassoon; 11. trumpet; 12. trombone; 13. French horn; 14. tuba; 15. drum; 16. cymbals; 17. xylophone; 18. grand piano; B. a) double bass player; b) bassoonist; c) cellist; d) clarinet(t)ist; e) cymbalist; f) drummer; g) flutist; h) French horn player; i) pianist; j) harpist; k) oboist; l) piccolo player; m) trombonist; n) trumpeter; o) tuba player; p) violist; q) violinist; r) xylophonist

Exercise 49.

M. Rostropovich - cello; S. Rachmaninov - grand piano; D. Oistrakh - violin; Y. Bashmet - viola; D. Matsuev - grand piano; V. Zinchuk - guitar; M. Tokaev - accordion

Exercise 50.

a - 1, 11, 16, 20; b - 3, 6, 10, 13; c - 5, 7, 12, 19; d - 2, 8, 15, 18; e - 4, 9, 14, 17

Exercise 51.

A. 1. g; 2. j; 3. a; 4. e; 5. i; 6. c; 7. b; 8. h; 9. f; 10. d; B. a - woodwind instruments; b - brass instruments; c - percussion instruments; d - string(ed) instruments; 1. violin; 2. viola; 3. cello; 4. double bass; 5. harp; 6. grand piano; 7. piccolo; 8. clarinet; 9. flute; 10. oboe; 11. bassoon; 12. trumpet; 13. trombone; 14. tuba; 15. French horn; 16. xylophone; 17. cymbals; 18. drum

Exercise 52.

a. 2, 3; b. 4, 6; c. 1, 5; d. 7, 8

Exercise 55.

B. 1. walkman; 2. tape recorder; 3. MP3 player; 4. CD player; 5. mobile; 6. music centre

Exercise 62.

The message of the poem could be explained like this: at war music may be as important as weapons (a sword) because it expresses and embodies the soul of a nation and can help to win a victory.

Unit Two

Exercise 2.

A. 1. d; 2. a; 3. g; 4. h; 5. c; 6. e; 7. b; 8 f; B. 1. e; 2. i; 3. h; 4. f; 5. j; 6. g; 7. a; 8. b; 9. d; 10. c

Exercise 3.

1. J; 2. F; 3. D; 4. B; 5. A; 6. C; 7. G; 8. I; 9. E; 10. H

Exercise 5.

true: 2, 3, 4, 5; false: 1; not mentioned in the text: 6, 7, 8

Exercise 7.

a) A - Civic Centre; B - The Kaufmann House b) 1. c; 2. a; 3. b; 4. c; 5. a; 6. b

Exercise 10.

A. 1. Oxford; 2. Edinburgh; 3. Bath; 4. Cambridge; 5. York; B. A - c; B - d; C - b; D - e; E - a

Exercise 12.

1. F; 2. D; 3. E; 4. A; 5. B; 6. C

Exercise 14.

1. b; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b; 7. c; 8. a; 9. c; 10. c

Exercise 15.

A. 1. to be aware; 2. contribution; 3. a handful; 4. pursuit; 5. unconventional working methods; 6. to collaborate; 7. to lack experience; 8. a crash course; 9. a manuscript; 10. figurative arts; 11. initial sketch; 12. hybrid; 13. austere habits; 14. draft letters; 15. the ancients; 16. consternation; 17. contemporaries; 18. divine

Exercise 17.

c

Exercise 18.

1. poached egg; 2. labour-saving trick; 3. fairly amiable; 4. terrific ordeal; 5. broad Haliford voices; 6. rattle away; 7. disagreeable; 8. they had been bossed; 9. to take easy; 10. sympathy for customers; 11. mounds of eggs; 12. flop into a chair; 13. promptly; 14. to contrive to linger on; 15. wilderness; 16. to make head or tail of sth; 17. fresh and crisp; 18. lace curtains

Exercise 24.

1. for; 2. about; 3. to; 4. out; 5. of; 6. with; 7. on; 8. on; 9. -; 10. on/away; 11. for; 12. out, with; 13. into

Exercise 25.

1. She seems to be getting rather vague... 2. Rachel flopped on to the sofa. 3. I want to spare Frances the embarrassment of... 4. Sylvia was very sympathetic to me. 5. The feeling of shame lingered on and Roy... 6. I know that Alex has sympathy with our plan (is sympathetic to our plan). 7. Bake the potatoes... till they are crisp. 8. It was so gloomy in the room. 9. What you say is nonsense. 10. She is fond of gossiping about her friends. 11. I like Florence. She is an amiable person. 12. ...I could hear the dishes rattle. 13. The situation was quite an ordeal.

Exercise 26.

1. gossip (n) - слухи, сплетни; 2. spare (adj) - лишний, запасной; 3. gloom - мрак, уныние; 4. rattle (n) - дребезжание, громыхание, погремушка; 5. sympathize (v) - сочувствовать; 6. amiability (n) - дружелюбие; 7. crisps (n) - чипсы; 8. flop (n) - провал

Exercise 27.

1. Spare me the necessity of going there. 2. I sympathize deeply with his family. 3. I can’t stand this old gossip. 4. I’ve met Jane only once but she seems amiable enough. 5. Alice flopped into a chair and burst out laughing. 6. She was in gloom because not even a postcard had arrived from Ricky. 7. She is eating potato crisps again! They have always been her favourite food. 8. Without lingering a minute she started for the railway station. 9. What an ordeal it is! 10. The car rattled over the stones. 11. Her words full of sympathy (sympathetic words) produced a proper impression on me. 12. He was rather vague about his plans. 13. He was talking nonsense during our meeting, which surprised everybody a lot. 14. I sympathize with (have sympathy for/’m sympathetic to) Mrs Crystal, she has lost her family in a car accident.

Exercise 29.

B. 1. creep; 2. stagger; 3. march; 4. shuffle; 5. swagger; 6. wander; 7. trudge; 8. stroll; 9. stride

Exercise 30.

1. march; 2. trudged; 3. swaggered; 4. wander; 5. staggered; 6. shuffled; 7. strolled; 8. creeping; 9. strode

Exercise 32.

A. 1. work; 2. toil; 3. labour/toil; 4. labour; 5. Labour; 6. work/ labour; 7. work; 8. labour; 9. work/labour; B. 1. customer; 2. client; 3. customers; 4. clients; 5. customers; 6. client; C. 1. Chief; 2. main (chief); 3. main; 4. chief; 5. main; 6. main (chief); 7. main; D. 1. amiable; 2. amicable; 3. amiable; 4. amicable; 5. amicable; 6. amiable

Exercise 33.

1. shoppers; 2. customers; 3. clients; 4. patients; 5. guests; 6. passengers

Exercise 34.

1. Они не смогли выполнить свои обязательства. 2. Даже после того как начала звучать музыка, они продолжали разговаривать. 3. То, что он был полон решимости справиться с болезнью, помогло ему добиться этого. 4. Чарли осуществил свой план. 5. Извините, я не смогла сдержать своё обещание. 6. Я поняла, что поддалась общему настроению радостного волнения. 7. Её активная жизненная позиция была перенесена на её благотворительную деятельность. 8. Я несколько увлеклась на распродаже одежды и потратила слишком много денег. 9. Хотя ему восемьдесят лет, он продолжает успешно заниматься бизнесом. 10. Мы едины и полны решимости провести необходимые реформы.

Exercise 35.

1. away; 2. on/out; 3. on; 4. over; 5. out; 6. on; 7. through; 8. over; 9. away; 10. on

Exercise 36.

1. complex; 2. compound; 3. complex; 4. complex; 5. simple, extended; 6. simple, extended; 7. simple, unextended; 8. compound; 9. compound; 10. complex

Exercise 37.

A. 1. a) Саманте подарили букет красивых садовых цветов. b) Цветочная оранжерея находится прямо в центре парка. 2. а) По слухам, в округе появилась страшная собака-убийца. b) После несчастного случая со щенком дети считали мистера Райдера бессердечным убийцей собак. 3. а) Выращивать деревья не так просто, как может вам показаться. b) Растущее дерево наконец достало до моего окна. 4. а) Пассажиров поездов всегда информируют о задержках в отправлении. b) Пассажирские поезда выглядят не так, как товарные. Их вряд ли можно перепутать.

Exercise 38.

1. In the evening, already tired after doing the city, we visited the British Museum. 2. On the chair he found a newspaper dated by 24 October. 3. - 4. Walking about the town you can see a lot of churches. 5. The book covered in dust was found in the corner of the room. 6. The bomb in a plastic bag was discovered by a security man. 7. An animal that is born in the zoo doesn’t know the taste of freedom. 8. -

Exercise 39.

1. relative clause; 2. adverbial clause; 3. reported clause; 4. relative clause; 5. adverbial clause; 6. reported clause

Exercise 40.

1. what; 2. what; 3. that; 4. that, what; 5. what, what; 6. what; 7. what; 8. that; 9. what; 10. that; 11. that; 12. what

Exercise 41.

1. He never plays such games in which he is likely to lose. 2. This factory produces cars which have recently become very popular, and other machinery. 3. The man whose photograph you saw in the newspaper yesterday lives in my street. 4. I saw the boys who are playing basketball at the same place before. 5. I always feed birds who don’t fly away in the winter and hope that I help them by doing it.

Exercise 42.

1. which; 2. who(m); 3. which; 4. who; 5. who; 6. which; 7. who(m); 8. which; 9. which; 10. who; 11. who; 12. which

Exercise 43.

sentences with identifying clauses: 3, 5, 7, 8; sentences with nonidentifying clauses: 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 10

Exercise 44.

1. that; 3. that; 5. that; 6. that; 8. that; 9. that

Exercise 45.

2, 3, 5, 8

Exercise 46.

1. I can’t ski, which is a pity. 2. Nobody in the city heard about those events, which was very strange. 3. The leading actors played their parts very well, which contributed to the success of the performance. 4. The child handed out his apple to me, which made me smile. 5. There was a clap (roar) of thunder and a flash of lightning, which doesn’t often happen in winter. 6. I hear they are going to get married, which is fantastic. 7. He spoke about (the) corruption in politics, which is (was) not new at all.

Exercise 47.

1. whose; 2. whose; 3. which; 4. who; 5. whose; 6. who(m), whose; 7. whose; 8. who, who(m); 9. whom; 10. whose; 11. whose; 12. whom; 13. whose; 14. who; 15. whom

Exercise 48.

1. buildings; 2. designers; 3. Roman; 4. identification; 5. unknown; 6. professional; 7. formal; 8. qualification(s); 9. product; 10. architecture; 11. practising; 12. governments

Exercise 49.

1. to look; 2. was raking; 3. her; 4. went; 5. him; 6. working/to work; 7. carefully; 8. die; 9. correctly; 10. his; 11. do; 12. raking/to rake

Exercise 50.

1. c; 2. b; 3. a; 4. c; 5. b; 6. d; 7. b; 8. c; 9. d; 10. b

Exercise 51.

1. c; 2. c; 3. b; 4. c; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8. c; 9. b; 10. a

Exercise 52.

1. was talking; 2. had; 3. had stopped; 4. feeling; 5. exclaimed; 6. could; 7. see; 8. laugh/laughing; 9. notice; 10. was moved; 11. felt; 12. ’ll make; 13. show; 14. knew; 15. had made/made; 16. laugh; 17. do not work; 18. will make; 19. cry; 20. kill; 21. do; 22. will be; 23. was put; 24. began; 25. tried; 26. saw; 27. was more surprised; 28. came; 29. made; 30. shook; 31. had wasted/had been wasting

Exercise 53.

1. These people are waiting for their passports. As soon as they get them, they will be able to start for the airport. 2. May I have a look at your magazine? There is an article in it, which interests me very much. It is on page 15. Have you read it yourself? 3. Physics is a science and a subject. When I was at school I always had problems with it. And even now I can’t say I’m good at it. 4. I shall never forget the day (when) George first came to our house. I had never seen such a handsome youth before. He was about six feet tall, well-built and had an amiable/a friendly smile. 5. If I had been there the day before, I would have taken a different decision. I don’t think you have really solved the problem. 6. Doctors, teachers, office managers can’t afford not to have telephones. A telephone is quite important (essential) for them. 7. Have you bought any vegetables? We are run out of potatoes, beets and carrots. 8. I expected Gerald to return at six. It is eight o’clock now and he hasn’t come yet. I wonder what he is doing in that club of his. 9. I hear a new cinema is being built not far from our block of flats. Do you know when they will finish its construction? 10. While Jane was doing the room, her sister was cooking in the kitchen. They knew their mother would soon return from work and wanted her to receive a pleasant surprise.

Exercise 58.

A. 1. porch; 2. portico; 3. dome; 4. balcony; 5. courtyard; 6. spire; 7. attic; 8. arch; 9. colonnade; 10. roof terrace; 11. cupolas; B. 1. D; 2. C; 3. A; 4. B

Exercise 59.

1. fresco; 2. concrete; 3. carving; 4. portico; 5. drapery; 6. terracotta; 7. marble; 8. mosaic; 9. attic; 10. tapestry; 11. dome; 12. veranda(h); 13. brick; 14. patio

Exercise 60.

A. 1. g; 2. c; 3. i; 4. j; 5. d; 6. e; 7. f; 8. b; 9. h; 10. a

Exercise 69.

The message of the poem Daffodils can be explained like this: nature and people exist in harmony and the former may influence us as we ourselves are a part of nature. The message of the poem Broadway can be explained as follows: the poet regards this street as a model of the whole world with its virtues and vices.

Unit Three

Exercise 2.

B. 1. c; 2. d; 3. f; 4. e; 5. a; 6. b; 7. g

Exercise 3.

true: 4, 5, 7; false: 1, 2, 3; not mentioned in the text: 6

Exercise 5.

1. d; 2. a; 3. b; 4. c

Exercise 7.

A. 1. them; 2. Victoria Falls; 3. 1676; 4. several streams; 5. the smoke that thunders; 6. Queen Victoria; B. 1. in southeastern Siberia; 2. freshwater lake in Eurasia; 3. 636, 82; 4. freshwater lake in the world; 5. is (exceptionally) pure; 6. the Angara River

Exercise 9.

1. f; 2. d; 3. b; 4. g; 5. a; 6. c; 7. e

Exercise 12.

A. 1. c; 2. b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. a; 6. c; 7. b; 8. b; 9. c; B. 1. a moat; 2. to mark; 3. genuine; 4. a (celebrated) landmark; 5. scores of; 6. dubious; 7. urban; 8. to pay homage to; 9. to match; 10. patterned; 11. to demolish; 12. to hinder; 13. blunt; 14. conservation efforts; 15. soaring tented; 16. winding

Exercise 15.

1. in the distance; 2. upraised voices; 3. to savour; 4. widowed; 5. limestone cliffs; 6. steep path; 7. mild and kindly disposition; 8. companionable silence; 9. untutored eyes; 10. it’s a constant wonder to me; 11. considered for a moment or two; 12. scribes; 13. ploughs the fields and reaps the barley; 14. rottenness that breed from within; 15. (a man) who muses to himself

Exercise 17.

A. a) What was true or valid in the past is not necessarily so today because circumstances change; b) People who do a lot are the people who have most energy. However busy they are, they can usually manage something more; c) Each succeeding generation has its own way of life and standard of behaviour; d) To procrastinate is to delay, to put off doing something. Procrastinating - deferring things from day to day - wastes a lot of time and usually ends in nothing being done at all; e) Do not delay taking action. If you wish to go to sea, do not miss the tide. Neither tide nor time will tarry for you. In a wider sense, if an opportunity presents itself, decide quickly and act promptly; f) However great our grief or disappointment may be, in the course of time it will lessen. In this sense our “wounds” heal with time; g) These words are a line from Longfellow. When we are idle, we do nothing by which future generations may remember us.

Exercise 20.

1. in; 2. from; 3. against; 4. at; 5. about; 6. in; 7. in; 8. on; 9. for; 10. -; 11. on; 12. across (in/on); 13. -; 14. by; 15. on

Exercise 21

1. доверять кому-либо; 2. недовольство, жалоба; 3. гора; 4. сонный; 5. благоразумие; 6. обучать; 7. занятие; 8. забастовка; 9. забастовка; 10. поразительный; 11. склонность; 12. наклонность; 13. приверженность

Exercise 22.

1. ...and confided his fears to his brother. 2. Her political leanings... 3. ...wears striking clothes. 4. The drowsy child... 5. Tell us about your background, please. 6. What is there in the background of the picture? 7. ... of a mild disposition. 8. Why did you strike him? 9. ...is prone to get colds... 10. ...is a prudent person. 11. Grace mounted the horse... 12. He grumbled about the way... 13. Jerald mused over/about Victor’s proposal. 14. ...is my music tutor. 15. He (is) has become more confident... 16. They went on strike for better pay(ment).

Exercise 23.

A. 1. struck; 2. confident; 3. mounted; 4. leaned (leant); 5. drowsed; 6. background; 7. grumbled; 8. prudent; 9. disposition; 10. prone; 11. musing

Exercise 24.

1. Старый художник был поражён красотой натурщицы. 2. Благоразумно проверить машину, прежде чем отправиться в длительную поездку. 3. Ральф сидел на крыльце и перебирал в памяти события дня (размышлял о...). 4. Только что пробило полночь. 5. Я почувствовал, что меня клонит в сон (ко сну), и решил немного поспать. 6. Некоторые люди склонны к перееданию. 7. То, что он сказал, показалось мне забавным. 8. У тебя весёлый нрав, ты улыбаешься и шутишь, даже если устала. 9. Покрывало для кровати было зелёным с жёлтыми цветами. 10. Дженни очень застенчива и всегда держится в тени. 11. Джек стоял, прислонившись к дереву. 12. Стивен всегда пользовался её доверием. 13. Только послушайте его! Он ворчит, что у него нет настроения убирать свою комнату. 14. Мы всегда уверены в успехе.

Exercise 25.

1. He confided his secret to me. 2. John grumbled about having to wake up so early. 3. We were struck by her words. 4. He mused over his friend’s offer but couldn’t take any decision. 5. He is prone to make mistakes. 6. Alice is a very prudent girl. 7. Uncle Tom mounted the hill and stood on top of it for some time admiring the view. 8. Lean the ladder against the wall, please. 9. The painter depicted beautiful rose bushes in the background. 10. When does the tutorial begin? 11. She murmured something drowsily and fell asleep. 12. Your sister shows prudence in spending her money but you don’t. 13. It has just struck four. 14. These are striking facts. 15. The disease struck unexpectedly.

Exercise 26.

A. seriously affected by: grief - grief-stricken; panic - panic-stricken; poverty - poverty-stricken; terror - terror-stricken; drought - drought-stricken; B. 1. terror-stricken (panic-stricken); 2. panic-stricken; 3. drought-stricken; 4. panic-stricken; 5. poverty- stricken; 6. grief-stricken; 7. terror-stricken (panic-stricken); 8. drought- stricken; 9. panic-stricken; 10. poverty-stricken

Exercise 27.

C. 1. on/upon/about/over; 2. about/over; 3. on/upon; 4. -; 5. -; 6. on; 7. on/upon; 8. -; 9. on/upon; 10. -; 11. on/upon; 12. -

Exercise 28.

A. 1. muse/meditate; 2. consider/ponder/contemplate; 3. reflect/con- sider/contemplate; 4. brood; 5. contemplate/ponder/consider; 6. ponder/ consider/contemplate

Exercise 29.

B. 1. The verb mount is formal in style, while go up and walk up are neutral. It also has an additional meaning to get on a horse. 2. A tutor is a teacher who gives private instruction to one pupil or a small group of pupils. In its other meaning a tutor in British universities and colleges is a teacher who directs the studies of a number of students and/or is responsible for giving them advice about personal matters.

Exercise 30.

A. 1. kind; 2. kindly (adv); 3. kind/kindly; 4. kind; 5. kind/kindly; 6. kindly (adv); B. 1. bent; 2. bend; 3. leant/leaned; 4. leant/leaned; 5. bend; 6. leant/leaned; C. 1. contempt; 2. despised; 3. despise; 4. contempt; 5. contempt; 6. despise(d)

Exercise 31

1. Демонстранты снесли баррикады. 2. Мальчики сорвали с себя одежду и прыгнули в воду. 3. Она порвала все фотографии своего бывшего приятеля. 4. Твои ссоры с братом разрывают мамино сердце на части. 5. В ней боролись чувство ярости и желание рассмеяться. 6. Ветер едва не срывал калитку с петель. 7. Не волнуйся. Ничто не разрушит нашу дружбу.

Exercise 32.

1. down; 2. off; 3. apart; 4. apart; 5. up; 6. down; 7. off; 8. off; 9. between

Exercise 33.

1. Native people expect foreigners to conform to British customs when they come to Britain. 2. We won’t be able to begin the meeting on time unless he comes at five. 3. -; 4. -; 5. Despite the fact that the actors’ voices were too loud, I really enjoyed the play. 6. usually impossible; 7. -; 8. -; 9. -; 10. -

Exercise 34.

1. when/since; 2. if/although/since; 3. unless; 4. in order to; 5. so that; 6. since; 7. so; 8. although (though); 9. till (until); 10. as if

Exercise 35.

1. I gave up sugar and butter so as (in order) not to put on weight. 2. Linda gave me a call so as (in order) to discuss some urgent matter with me. 3. My granny decided to take up painting so as (in order) not to be bored. 4. They drove through town so as (in order) not to use the motorway (to avoid the motorway). 5. Greg left quietly so as (in order) not to disturb his parents. 6. Sue went to the kitchen so as (in order) to make a cup of tea. 7. Jack came back early so as (in order) to watch a/the football match on TV. 8. I listened to his speech attentively so as (in order) to understand what it was all about. 9. The workers went on strike so as (in order) to get higher wages. 10. We decided to spend our winter holidays in the Alps so as (in order) to have a bit of real skiing.

Exercise 36.

1. so that; 2. so as; 3. so as; 4. so as; 5. so that; 6. so that; 7. so that; 8. so as; 9. so that; 10. so that; 11. so as; 12. so that; 13. so as; 14. so as; 15. so that

Exercise 37.

1. in case/if; 2. if; 3. in case; 4. in case; 5. if; 6. in case; 7. if; 8. if; 9. in case; 10. in case

Exercise 39.

1. We can’t keep calling the doctor every time you get a headache. 2. Every time she hears this melody, she remembers her graduation. 3. She orders shrimp salad every time she gets to this cafe. 4. I meet this old gentleman and his dog every time I do my jogging in the morning. 5. Every time we invite her to visit us she finds some pretext and never comes. 6. Every time there is a test in maths he catches a cold. 7. Every time I ask for this book in the library, there is somebody else who needs it. 8. Every time it rains I am in low spirits (I feel bad). 9. Every time it snows at Christmas people in Britain feel happy (rejoice). 10. Every time I look at this photo I remember those wonderful days in Rome.

Exercise 40.

1. earthen; 2. northern; 3. Chinese; 4. successive; 5. approximately; 6. archeological; 7. southwestern; 8. eastern; 9. running; 10. famous; 11. western; 12. explorer; 13. cultural; 14. cultural

Exercise 41.

1. Unless; 2. if; 3. Unless; 4. If; 5. If; 6. if; 7. unless; 8. Unless; 9. If; 10. Unless

Exercise 42.

1. comes; 2. will arrive; 3. will be going (will go); 4. comes; 5. will change; 6. calls; 7. comes; 8. will be shown; 9. save (have saved); 10. says; 11. will bloom; 12. pay

Exercise 43.

1. guarding; 2. entrance; 3. construction; 4. first; 5. built; 6. was completed; 7. various/varying; 8. burning; 9. be seen; 10. greatest; 11. was destroyed

Exercise 44.

1. c; 2. b; 3. a; 4. d; 5. b; 6. c; 7. d; 8. a; 9. c;10. c; 11. b

Exercise 45.

1. c; 2. c; 3. a; 4. b; 5. c; 6. b; 7. d; 8. b; 9. a; 10. c; 11. a; 12. b; 13. a; 14. b; 15. a; 16. b; 17. a; 18. b; 19. b; 20. b; 21. a; 22. c; 23. c; 24. d; 25. a; 26. a; 27. a; 28. a

Exercise 46.

1. built; 2. is gathered; 3. bear; 4. towering; 5. was constructed; 6. was; 7. pictured; 8. was carved; 9. were covered; 10. do not know; 11. modelled; 12. lived; 13. have completely disappeared; 14. bring

Exercise 47.

1. We decided to stay in the city longer (in order) to do all the sights. Though the city was not very big, there were a lot of things to see there. 2. - How long have you known the Stuarts? - I don’t remember exactly. I think I have known them since the day I was born. At least they have always been nearby. 3. We won’t be late if the train arrives on time, but if it doesn’t, I think we’ll have to hire a taxi to the airport (so as) not to miss our flight. 4. In case there is a fire, telephone the fire brigade. But never do it if there is no danger. Every time somebody gives them a groundless call there may be a disaster somewhere. 5. Wherever you go you see happy faces everywhere. Everybody is engaged in some creative activity. It is evident that people are doing what they like to do and as (in the way) they like. 6. He goes to the skating rink three times a week so as to become a skilful skater. Though the training begins at a quarter to seven a.m. he never misses it. 7. Mr Black changed his appearance so that his friends couldn’t recognize him. He didn’t want them to know he had returned. 8. Though I want to travel abroad, I can’t afford it (such a trip) this year as the plane tickets have become much more expensive. 9. Despite the fact that he lives in the same block of flats (high-rise building) I don’t see him very often. I start work early in the morning and come back when it gets dark. 10. Though the children are only six, many of them can work on computers very well. The new generation is much faster in learning such things.

Exercise 52.

B. 1. to shock; 2. to stun/to amaze/to astonish/to astound/to dumb- found/to stagger; 3. to puzzle/to bewilder/to amaze; 4. to amaze/to stun/ to astonish/to astound/to stagger; 5. to shock/to astound/to stagger; 6. to stun/to dumbfound/to astound/to stagger; 7. to shock/to nonplus/ to puzzle/to bewilder; 8. to stun/to amaze/to astonish/to astound etc.

Exercise 55.

B. sample versions: 1. odd; 2. bizarre/uncanny; 3. odd; 4. uncanny/ odd; 5. odd/curious; 6. curious/odd; 7. curious

Exercise 64.

The message of the poem Upon Westminster Bridge could be explained as follows: The poet admires the beauty of the reposing city in the early hours of the morning. Usually London is a busy place so it must have looked very different and enchanting to the poet at that time. The message of the second poem could be found in the unusual character of the city standing on the water, its beauty and its rich history.

Unit Four

Exercise 2.

1. f; 2. h; 3. j; 4. c; 5. i; 6. a; 7. l; 8. d; 9. m; 10. n; 11. b; 12. o; 13. e; 14. g; 15. k

Exercise 3.

true: 1, 5, 7; false: 4, 6; not mentioned in the text: 2, 3

Exercise 5.

1. c; 2. e; 3. d; 4. a; 5. b

Exercise 7.

1. c; 2. b; 3. a; 4. b; 5. a

Exercise 9.

1 D, 2 G, 3 A, 4 F, 5 C, 6 B, 7 E

Exercise 13.

1. e; 2. c; 3. f; 4. a; 5. g; 6. b; 7. h; 8. j; 9. i; 10. d

Exercise 14.

A. 1. to embody; 2. to launch; 3. to surrender; 4. to salvage; 5. to be renamed; 6. an overhaul; 7. a scrap; 8. to scrap; 9. to unveil; 10. charitable

Exercise 17.

1. gilded; 2. artistic taste; 3. to cry for the moon; 4. to come to the point; 5. ripples (on the water); 6. courtship; 7. to have no conversation; 8. to curtsey gracefully; 9. to trifle with sb; 10. lofty wall; 11. courtiers; 12. lead; 13. worn; 14. coarse; 15. satin gown; 16. to be fastened (to sth); 17. to pick out; 18. to toss feverishly; 19. to sink into a delicious slumber

Exercise 21.

1. of; 2. to; 3. on; 4. on; 5. -; 6. -; 7. up; 8. in; 9. with; 10. -; 11. to; 12. with; 13. in; 14. on

Exercise 22.

attach - прикреплять (attached - прикреплённый, приложенный); miserable - несчастный; remarkable - замечательный, удивительный, необыкновенный; admittance - вход, доступ; embroidery - вышивание, вышивка, вышитое изделие; drenched - промокший; prick (n) - укол; glow (n) - свет, отблеск, отсвет; gain (n) - рост, прирост, увеличение, прибавление, нажива, корысть, обогащение; mutter (n) - бормотание, тихая невнятная речь

Exercise 23.

1. I muttered to myself... 2. The big wave drenched... 3. They admitted that... 4. I pricked my finger on a sharp pin. 5. The bee alighted on the flower. 6. ...and the passengers alighted (from it). 7. The flood caused misery for (to) many people. 8. You will gain experience... 9. The light bulb glows brightly. 10. The consequence of going to sleep... 11. The stew for dinner smelled delicious. 12. The embroidery on the wedding dress was beautiful. 13. ...there was a mutter of disapproval. 14. ...is remarkable. 15. Make several pricks on the top...

Exercise 24.

1. delicious; 2. alighted; 3. consequence; 4. attached; 5. attachment; 6. consequently; 7. gain; 8. admittance; 9. miserable; 10. muttered; 11. remarked; 12. pricks; 13. admit

Exercise 25.

1. She embroidered the dress with bright flowers (She embroidered bright flowers on the dress). 2. “I admit my mistake,” he said. 3. Prisoners can develop attachment to their warders. 4. This experiment could have serious consequences for the economy. 5. They were unable to gain admittance to the hall. 6. A lot of birds alighted on the field. 7. The copies attached to the document were of little consequence. 8. It rained heavily (hard) and the children were completely drenched. 9. We all felt miserable about losing our dog. 10. We all gained from the building of the new bridge. 11. The fire cast a warm glow on the wall. 12. The glow of the sky at the sunset was very beautiful. 13. The delicious fragrance of lavender filled the room. 14. John was fast asleep muttering something in his sleep. 15. She suffered from the prick(s) of conscience.

Exercise 27.

A. 1. shine; 2. flash; 3. glow; 4. sparkle; C. 1. shine, flash, glow, sparkle, glisten, gleam, shimmer, twinkle; 2. glow, shimmer; 3. flash; 4. shimmer; 5. gleam, glisten; 6. glisten; 7. gleam; 8. twinkle; 9. sparkle, twinkle

Exercise 28.

1. Припаркованный на улице роллс-ройс сверкал на солнце. 2. Мы пошли прогуляться при луне, а высоко над нами мерцали звёзды. 3. При каждом движении его шёлковая рубашка блестела и переливалась. 4. Тёплые отсветы огня, горевшего в печи, плясали на сосновых стенах кухни. 5. Бармен вытирал рюмки до тех пор, пока они не засверкали. 6. На ней было бриллиантовое ожерелье, сверкавшее при свете огня в камине. 7. Разразилась гроза, и вспышки молний прорезали небо. 8. Серые крыши блестели после дождя. 9. Огонёк сигареты мерцал в темноте, пока охранник поднимался по холму. 10. Вдалеке нам были видны светящиеся окна (деревенского) дома. 11. Лунный свет, отражаясь, мерцал на поверхности озера. 12. Снег сверкал (искрился) на солнце. 13. В их глазах были искорки смеха. (Их глаза искрились смехом.) 14. Сквозь деревья ярко сверкали огни города. 15. В полуденный зной над пустыней стояло марево.

Exercise 31.

A. 1. lofty; 2. high; 3. tall; 4. lofty, lofty, much loftier; 5. high; 6. highest; 7. high; 8. tall; 9. tall; 10. lofty; B. 1. sleep/slumber; 2. slumbers; 3. slumber (sleep); 4. nap (sleep); 5. nap; 6. sleep; 7. sleep; 8. nap; 9. nap; 10. sleep; 11. sleep; C. 1. receive; 2. gain; 3. gain; 4. got; 5. receiving/getting; 6. got/received; 7. received/got; 8. gained; 9. gained; 10. got/received; D. 1. skinny; 2. slender; 3. slender; 4. thin; 5. skinny/thin; 6. skinny; 7. slender; 8. thin; 9. slender; 10. thinner, thinner

Exercise 32.

1. Когда до тебя доходит сказанное или какой-либо факт, это значит, что ты наконец-то его понял. 2. Как ты мог опуститься до того, чтобы обмануть своих родителей? 3. Грейс почувствовала сильную усталость. Она откинулась в кресле и закрыла глаза. 4. Когда же до этой тугодумки дойдёт, что он ею интересуется (она ему небезразлична)? 5. Урок не был понят. 6. Леди Дэвидсон сделала три шага и грациозно опустилась в кресло. 7. “Потребовалось какое-то время, чтобы до меня дошло, что имелось в виду, - сказал он. - Поначалу я не понял, как это важно”. 8. Ты знаешь, что старый Гриффинс дошёл до того, что ударил (обидел) свою маленькую внучку?

Exercise 33.

1. in; 2. down; 3. in; 4. to; 5. back; 6. in; 7. down; 8. down

Exercise 34.

1. chain brackets; 2. asterisk; 3. underline; 4. dash; 5. hyphen; 6. colon; 7. open bracket; 8. diamond brackets; 9. (forward) slash; 10. square brackets; 11. quotation marks, or double quotes; 12. semicolon

Exercise 35.

2. French; 3. Sensibility; 5. Arabia, Prophet; 7. Stones; 8. September, November; 9. Romans

Exercise 36.

1. the ABC; 2. HBO/H.B.O.; 3. lab./lab; 4. Mr/Mr.; 5. GATT/G.A.T.T.; 6. PTO; 7. dep./dep; 8. H.E./HE; 9. MP; 10. pm/p.m.; 11. sing./sing; 12. PS; 13. J. B. Priestley/JB Priestley; 14. G. B. Shaw/GB Shaw

Exercise 37.

1. Well, Matilda, aren’t you... 2. Oh, I was... 3. They passed the greengrocer(,) and then... 4. You won’t tell anyone about this, will you? 5. Calm yourself down, child, calm yourself down. 6. It is quite possible that you are a phenomenon(,) but I’d rather... 7. “By the way,” Ma said, “did you do anything about the car?” 8. She was a sweet, gentle and caring creature. 9. It was cool, dark and very unpleasant downstairs. 10. If you write an email now, he will get it immediately, Bess, believe me. 11. Pop departed across the field to the truck(,) and Mr Charlton at once felt much more himself. 12. When he first asked me, I laughed at the question. 13. Have you ever heard of Max Preston who came to our school last month? 14. The woman had a small suitcase, a box, a handbag and an umbrella.

Exercise 38.

1. This is the problem which we’re solving at the moment. 2. Tell him about it when he comes. 3. If they arrive early, they will be able to have a short tour of the city. 4. The man, whose face seems familiar to you, is our principal. 5. I have been to Rhodes, Crete and some other islands of the Mediterranean. 6. The guy, who is waiting in the office, wants to talk to you. 7. I will be delighted if you get a chance to know this outstanding writer. 8. Emily Green, who was here in the morning, won’t join us. 9. We’ll ask Dick, who is the oldest in the family, just to say a few words. 10. If my daughter leaves me, I’ll miss her very much.

Exercise 39.

colon is used: 1. to mark the clause in which explanation is given; 2. to introduce a list; 3. to introduce a list; 4. to introduce the sub-title of the book; 5. to mark the clause in which reasons are given; 6. to mark the clause in which explanation is given; 7. to mark the clause in which reasons are given; 8. to introduce a list

Exercise 40.

1. Taylor was an outstanding actor; with a few... 2. The breakfast menu consisted of fruit juice or cereal; a boiled egg; toast and marma-lade(;) and a pot of tea or coffee. 3. I had been aware that they sometimes disagreed violently; I had not realized that... 4. semi-colon is not used; 5. semi-colon is not used; 6. semi-colon is not used; 7. She is expected later today; she is not... 8. She bought eggs, butter, bread and coffee.

Exercise 41.

1. perfectly; 2. monstrous; 3. motionless; 4. bridal; 5. romantic; 6. government; 7. thoroughly; 8. practical; 9. argument; 10. philosopher; 11. atomic; 12. explanation; 13. terribly

Exercise 42.

1. went; 2. were walking; 3. saw; 4. its; 5. is giving; 6. wonderful; 7. their; 8. looking; 9. her; 10. thought; 11. holding; 12. her; 13. will/ shall wait; 14. looks

Exercise 43.

1. c; 2. b; 3. d; 4. b; 5. a; 6. c; 7. d; 8. a; 9. b; 10. c; 11. b; 12. a

Exercise 44.

1. did not care; 2. were; 3. forgot; 4. were pleased; 5. has forgotten; 6. comes; 7. shall/will live; 8. to stay; 9. came; 10. was wrapped; 11. roared; 12. blew; 13. approach(ing); 14. sat; 15. looked; 16. came; 17. was lying; 18. heard; 19. playing/play; 20. thought; 21. were passing; 22. had not heard; 23. has returned; 24. did he see

Exercise 45.

1. c; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. a; 6. d; 7. c; 8. b; 9. c; 10. d; 11. c; 12. a; 13. b; 14. d; 15. b; 16. a; 17. c; 18. a; 19. b; 20. c; 21. d; 22. a; 23. c

Exercise 46.

1. When I was passing by the open window, I heard sounds of music. Somebody was playing the piano. The music sounded sweet and tender. 2. Listen! The clock in the dining room is striking. It’s already six (o’clock). It’s getting dark. 3. When you see Peter again, give my love to him (say hello to him). I haven’t seen him for ages and I miss him (am missing him). 4. Mother wouldn’t be (have been) angry if you hadn’t broken her favourite cup. You shouldn’t have used it. 5. By five o’clock lessons had been done, dinner had been cooked and the house was as clean as a whistle. The children sat round the table waiting (were sitting and waiting) for their parents. 6. I’m afraid that these clothes are not suitable for skiing. You need a warmer sweater and a pair of gloves. The day is rather (fairly, quite) cold today. 7. If I had known the answer to this question yesterday, I would have passed the examination better (more successfully). To be honest, yesterday’s examination was the most difficult in my whole life. 8. I heard someone knock at (on) the door quietly. Who could it be? My parents had already come back from work and we were not expecting (did not expect) any visitors (guests). 9. For some time he lived on the farm where he was made to feed sheep and look after (take care of) cows. Gradually (eventually) he got used to this work (job) and even began to like it. 10. Who knows where deer live? You’ll answer this question easily if you remember how people use these animals.

Exercise 47.

A. 1. Pupils have to leave their jackets in the cloakroom. Pupils mustn’t bring their jackets to the classroom. 2. Pupils mustn’t miss the morning registration. Pupils always have to come to (be present at) morning registration. 3. Pupils must (have to) attend school assemblies on Monday mornings. Pupils mustn’t miss school assemblies on Monday mornings. 4. Pupils must (have to) wear the uniform. 5. Pupils mustn’t run about the building during the breaks. 6. Pupils must (have to) say “Sir” or “Miss” to the teachers politely. 7. Pupils mustn’t fight with other pupils. 8. Pupils must help those who need help. 9. Pupils must (have to) bring sports clothes for PE lessons. 10. Pupils mustn’t bring any objects that may cause danger to school. 11. Pupils must (have to) keep their uniforms and other clothes tidy. 12. Pupils mustn’t chew chewing gum in the school building. 13. Pupils must (have to) keep the schoolyard tidy.

Exercise 49.

A. 1. mustn’t; 2. don’t have to; 3. needn’t/don’t have to; 4. needn’t/don’t have to; 5. mustn’t; 6. don’t have to/needn’t; 7. mustn’t; 8. needn’t/don’t have to; 9. needn’t/don’t have to; 10. mustn’t

Exercise 50.

1 - g; 2 - d; 3 - b; 4 - f; 5 - k; 6 - i; 7 - l; 8 - j; 9 - h; 10 - c; 11 - a; 12 - e

Exercise 52.

1. competitive; 2. ruthless, cruel; 3. outgoing; 4. impatient; 5. impulsive; 6. reserved; 7. stubborn; 8. generous; 9. insincere; 10. hypocritical; 11. ambitious; 12. boastful

Exercise 53.

1. g; 2. h; 3. b; 4. j; 5. i; 6. a; 7. e; 8. d; 9. c; 10. f

Exercise 66.

1. When two young people love each other dearly they often have difficulties to face before they can marry. Ср.: Любовь никогда не бывает без грусти. 2. Those in love don’t notice each other’s faults. Ср.: Любовь слепа. Любовь зла не видит. Любовь зла - полюбишь и козла. 3. Love has such power that it will overcome all difficulties. Ср.: Гони любовь хоть в дверь, она влетит в окно. Любовь на замок не закроешь. Для любви нет преград. На любовь закона нет. Для милого дружка семь вёрст не околица. 4. In courtship, just as on the battlefield, it is permissible to use every strategy and take advantage of any opportunity. Ср.: В любви и на войне все средства хороши. 5. If you love a person you must put up with their faults, their little ways, their friends and relatives. Ср.: Меня любишь, так и собаку мою не бей.

Exercise 69.

The message of the first poem could be explained as follows: The young soldier knew that he was risking his life in Northern Ireland and could be easily killed, and wanted to comfort his parents in case it might happen. The person who wrote the poem could have sincerely believed that all the things in the world were connected and that people’s souls do not perish when people die. The second piece of poetry emphasises the idea that a name is not the most significant thing in a person, it is far less important than the personality itself. Notice that this idea was really advanced in Shakespearean times, but even nowadays it sounds quite up-to-date.