Аудиокурс к учебнику - Приложение

Английский язык - Книга для учителя 11 класс - Углублённый уровень - О. В. Афанасьева - 2017 год

Аудиокурс к учебнику - Приложение

Unit One

No. 1. Exercise 3. Listen to the text “They Want to Make Really Good Music” and say if the statements in the Student’s book are true, false or not mentioned in the text.

They Want to Make Really Good Music

Kareem and George from south London play in a band called United Vibrations. Kareem is seventeen and George is sixteen years old. George plays the trumpet and Kareem plays the bass. The boys met through the special music course at school. They both went to an ordinary secondary school which has a special music course for young people with musical talent. They were in different classes and no one really mixed. So it took a while for the boys to become friends. Now they practise with United Vibrations. There are eight of them in the band. Kareem’s elder brother, Ahmad started the band. George and Kareem have similar interests and goals and want to make really good music. George says he appreciates Kareem’s conversational skills. Kareem is easy to deal with and he’s always up for doing stuff and going out. The boys hang out in each other’s houses and write songs and go out together in the evenings. Kareem says he likes that George sometimes challenges what he says and doesn’t just agree with him all the time. The boys have been friends for some time already and think their friendship will get on well forever. They both live in the same area, know the same people. Their parents are friends as well, but they are not so sure they will be able to see as much of each other after they finish school.

No. 2. Exercise 5. Listen to the text “The Greatest Cellist of All Times” and complete the statements in the Student’s book.

The Greatest Cellist of All Times

Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich, a world-famous cellist and conductor, is widely considered to have been one of the greatest cellists of the twentieth century.

He was born on March 27, 1927 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, USSR. He grew up in the beautiful city of Baku, now the capital of the Independent Republic of Azerbaijan, and spent his young ages there, until his move to Moscow in 1931.

At the age of four he learned the piano with his mother who was a talented pianist, and started the cello at the age of 10 with his father, who was also a cellist.

From 1943 to 1948, he studied at the Moscow Conservatoire, where he became professor of cello in 1956. He entered the Moscow Conservatoire at the age of sixteen, and studied not only the piano and the cello, but also conducting and composition. Among his teachers were Dmitri Shostakovich and Sergei Prokofiev. In 1945 he came to prominence as cellist when he won the gold medal in the first ever Soviet Union competition for young musicians.

In 1951, at the age of twenty-four he was awarded what was then considered the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, the Stalin Prize. At that time, Rostropovich was already well known in his country and while actively pursuing his solo career, he taught at the Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Conservatoire and the Moscow Conservatoire. In 1955, he married Galina Vishnevskaya, soprano at the Bolshoi Theatre.

His international career started in 1964. He went on several tours in Western Europe and met several composers, including Benjamin Britten. In 1967, he conducted Tchaikovsky’s opera Eugene Onegin at the Bolshoi, thus letting forth his passion for both the role of conductor and the opera.

Among the composers who wrote especially for Rostropovich were Shostakovich, Prokofiev, Britten, Bernstein, Schnittke and Piazzolla.

Rostropovich fought for art without borders, freedom of speech, and democratic values. When in 1948 his teacher Dmitri Shostakovich was dismissed from his professorships in Leningrad and Moscow because he was thought to be one of the so-called “formalist” composers, the then 21-year-old Rostropovich quit the Conservatoire, dropping out in protest. In 1969 he sheltered Alexander Solzhenitsyn in his own home. His friendship with Solzhenitsyn and his support for dissidents led to official disgrace. As a result, Rostropovich was restricted from foreign touring, as was his wife, soprano Galina Vishnevskaya, and he was sent on a tour of small towns in Siberia.

Rostropovich left the Soviet Union in 1974 with his wife and children and settled in the United States.

Rostropovich was a huge influence on the younger generation of cellists.

From 1977 until 1994, he was musical director and conductor of the U.S. National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, DC, while still performing with some of the most famous musicians such as Sviatoslav Richter and Vladimir Horowitz. He was also the director and founder of the Rostropovitch and Aldeburgh music festivals. His performance during the fall of the Berlin Wall as events unfolded earned him international fame and was shown on television throughout the world. His Russian citizenship was restored in 1990, although he and his family had already become American citizens.

Rostropovich received many international awards. He supported many educational and cultural projects. Rostropovich and his wife, Galina Vishnevskaya, started a foundation to stimulate social projects and activities. He died on April 27, 2007.

No. 3. Exercise 7. Listen to the information about the British composer Henry Purcell and choose the right item in the statements in the Student’s book.

Henry Purcell

Henry Purcell was born in 1659 in London. After his father he became a chorister, a singer in the Chapel Royal.

The talented boy started composing music at the age of nine. He composed the music to the works by the most prominent poets of his time. His compositions contain songs and choruses which never fail to please, even at the present day.

At the age of 21, Henry Purcell was appointed organist of Westminster Abbey. It was the most honourable position an English musician could occupy at that time. For six years Purcell devoted himself almost completely to the composition of religious music. At the same time he wrote the musical drama Dido and Aeneas which became one of the first real operas in England. In it there’s not a word of spoken dialogue and the music is full of inspiration. The opera was very popular among private circles.

In 1682 Purcell became organist of the Chapel Royal and a year later his first printed composition Twelve Sonatas was published.

Henry Purcell is mostly remembered for his beautiful anthems, such as music to the tragedy Tyrannic Love. But Purcell’s greatest work is considered to be Te Deum, a religious hymn praising God, composed with orchestral accompaniment. It was so perfect that in the years to come it was annually performed in St. Paul’s Cathedral.

Purcell died in 1695, and was buried under the organ in Westminster Abbey. His widow published a number of his works including the now famous collections of songs, Orpheus Britannicus.

Purcell wrote operas, religious music, many odes, cantatas and other pieces of music. He is undoubtedly one of the greatest British composers of all times whose music hasn’t been forgotten.

No. 4. Exercise 8. Listen to a piece of music by Henry Purcell and say what feelings this music arouses. Would you like to listen to more music by this composer? Why (not)? Does Purcell’s music sound like the music of any other composers that you know? What composers?

No. 5. Exercise 14. Find in the text the descriptions of Mozart’s works, listen to the fragments of these works and compare what is written in the text with your own feelings.

1. A-minor piano sonata

2. C-minor Mass

3. Eine kleine Nachtmusik

4. The 40th symphony

5. The 41st symphony (The Jupiter)

No. 6. Exercise 62. Listen to the poem and say what its message is.

The Minstrel Boy

by Thomas Moore

The Minstrel Boy to the war is gone

In the ranks of death you will find him;

His father’s sword he hath girded on,

And his wild harp slung behind him;

“Land of Song!” said the warrior bard,

“Though all the world betrays thee,

One sword, at least, thy rights shall guard,

One faithful harp shall praise thee!”

The Minstrel fell! - but the foeman’s chain

Could not bring that proud soul under;

The harp he loved ne’er spoke again,

For he tore its chords asunder;

And said, “No chains shall sully thee,

Thou soul of love and bravery!

Thy songs were made for the pure and free,

They shall never sound in slavery!”

Unit Two

No. 7. Exercise 5. Listen to the text “Sir Christopher Wren” and say if the statements in the Student’s book are true, false or not mentioned in the text.

Sir Christopher Wren

The English architect Sir Christopher Wren was born in 1632. He introduced the forms of Renaissance design to the vocabulary of English architecture.

Among the many buildings he designed in England one is very special and very important. After the London fire of 1666 Wren replanned the whole city, supervised the rebuilding of 51 churches and made a new design for St. Paul’s Cathedral. The plan for London was not used as it was considered impractical, but the churches and the cathedral were built. Wren was engaged with this work for the rest of his life. Wren’s churches are modest structures consisting of a spire and an interior space. Wren usually produced only the general plan, leaving the interior to be decorated by others. St. Paul’s was a different story, for it was to be grand and magnificent. Wren worked on this Baroque-style building for about forty years. His final plan for it was in the form of a Latin cross with a huge dome that rises to 365 feet and is the Cathedral’s crowning glory. The building is decorated with two towers. Within one of them is a peal of 12 bells and in the other the clock and Great Paul, the largest bell in England. The Cathedral’s west front is decorated with rows of graceful columns and the portico is carved with a piece of sculpture. St. Paul’s represents a wonderful display of craftsmanship - woodcarving, mosaics, ironwork and painting.

St. Paul’s has become the spiritual centre of the City of London. It has been the place for important occasions in the nation’s history: the funeral of Sir Winston Churchill, the wedding of the Prince and Princess of Wales. It is also the final resting place for many of the nation’s heroes.

No. 8. Exercise 7. Listen to the text “Organic Architecture” and a) say which of the two buildings in the pictures is the Kaufmann House and which is Civic Centre; b) choose the right item to complete the sentences.

Organic Architecture

Contemporary architecture takes a bewildering variety of forms and makes use of a far wider range of materials than ever. The International Style has dominated architecture until very recently. This style resulted in numerous office buildings, apartment complexes, hospitals and hotels that look like almost identical glass boxes all over the world.

Not all contemporary architects agree with the principles of modern International Style and most of their buildings are instantly recognizable in their individuality, as were the great buildings of the past.

One of such architects, an American named Frank Lloyd Wright, designed quite a number of original buildings, among which is the famous Kaufmann House “Fallingwater”. To integrate the house with its setting, the roofs and terraces of it were built over the waterfall. Thus the house actually looks like a part of the waterfall. Another famous building by Frank Lloyd Wright is Civic Centre in San Rafael, California. The rounded forms of the building repeat the shapes and the rhythm of the hills around it.

Wright has become one of the most influential figures in modern architecture. He called his style “organic architecture”, meaning that his style was based on natural forms: trees, seashells, snails, etc. His buildings were clearly romantic, poetic, and intensely personal. At his death in 1959, he left a lot of completed buildings of great beauty, some writings on architecture and a number of disciples. His influence on both sides of the Atlantic was great.

No. 9. Exercise 10. Listen to the five guidebook texts about English towns and say which of the towns:

1. is an important centre of automobile production;

2. has two parts that don’t look alike;

3. is a well-known resort;

4. has a lot of vegetation;

5. was founded for military purposes by the Romans.

a. From the first century AD to nowadays, people have been drawn to Bath to look for comfort, cure and cleansing in the hot water that rises at its heart. But it is not the only reason why visitors come to Bath. A lot of people think that this ancient city, founded by the Romans, is an architectural masterpiece - one of the most harmonious cities of the world. It is also a city taking us back deep into prehistory.

b. York is the capital of the north country. It lies at the junction of the rivers Ouse [u:z] and Foss where the Romans built their first fortification in AD 71 and named it Eboracum. The city is surrounded by medieval walls. The history of York is the history of England and every episode in its development reads like an adventure story.

c. To walk through Oxford is to walk through history. Nowhere else in England is so much history, so much tradition and such a wealth of fine architecture to be found in a comparatively small area. Modern Oxford is a paradox, trying to be very different places at once; it is on the one hand a busy industrial town, with its economy especially concerned with the manufacture of motor cars and its vision fixed on the future; at the same time it is one of the two leading university cities of the British Commonwealth, with its roots fixed in the past.

d. Walking around the city of Edinburgh is almost like visiting two different cities very close to each other. To walk around the heart of the Old Town and the New Town will take about an hour at a reasonable walking pace. If you want to see more, it will naturally take longer. How much longer will depend on whether you are content to admire buildings from the outside or whether you wish to see what delights they contain.

e. Modern Cambridge has been described as “perhaps the only true university town in England”. University and college buildings provide nearly all the outstanding architectural features. The city has a lot of commons and other open spaces, including the University Botanic Gardens and the Backs. The Backs are the landscaped lawns and gardens through which the River Cam winds behind the main line of colleges, and under a series of magnificent bridges of which the Bridge of Sighs, the stone bridge of Clare with thick stone balls on the parapets, and the so-called “Mathematical Bridge” are among the best known.

Exercise 69. Listen to the poems and say what their messages are.

No. 10.

The Daffodils

by William Wordsworth

I wander’d lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o’er vales and hills,

When all at once I saw a crowd,

A host, of golden daffodils;

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

Continuous as the stars that shine

And twinkle on the Milky Way,

They stretch’d in never-ending line

Along the margin of a bay:

Ten thousand saw I at a glance,

Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

The waves beside them danced; but they

Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:

A poet could not but be gay,

In such a jocund company:

I gazed - and gazed - but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought:

For oft, when on my couch I lie

In vacant or in pensive mood,

They flash upon that inward eye

Which is the bliss of solitude;

And then my heart with pleasure fills,

And dances with the daffodils.

No. 11.

Broadway

by Walt Whitman

What hurrying human tides, or day or night!

What passions, winnings, losses, ardours, swim thy waters!

What whirls of evil, bliss and sorrow, stem thee!

What curious questioning glances - glints of love!

Leer, envy, scorn, contempt, hope, aspiration!

Thou portal - thou arena - thou of the myriad long-drawn lines and groups!

(Could but thy flagstones, curbs, facades, tell their inimitable tales;

Thy windows rich, and huge hotels - thy side-walks wide;)

Thou of the endless sliding, mincing, shuffling feet!

Thou, like the parti-coloured world itself - like infinite, teeming, mocking life!

Thou visor’d, vast, unspeakable show and lesson!

Unit Three

No. 12. Exercise 3. Listen to the text “The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World” and say which of the statements in the Student’s book are true, false or not mentioned in the text.

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World were in ancient Greek called by a word which can be translated more or less as “must-sees”, in other words seven musts for people to see. The list which we know today was compiled in the Middle Ages - by which time many of the sites were no longer in existence. Since the list came mostly from ancient Greek writings, only sites that have been known and visited by the ancient Greeks were included. Of these wonders, the only one that has survived to the present day is the Great Pyramid of Giza. The existence of the Hanging Gardens has not been definitely proved. Records show that the other five wonders were destroyed by natural disasters. The Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were destroyed by fire, while the Lighthouse at Alexandria, the Colossus and the Mausoleum of Mausolus were destroyed by earthquakes. There are sculptures from the Mausoleum of Mausolus and the Temple of Artemis in the British Museum in London. The Mausoleum of Mausolus was the tomb of King Mausolus built at Halicarnassus by the king’s widow. From the king’s name, Mausolus, the term “mausoleum” has come to mean any large, highly ornamental tomb.

No. 13. Exercise 5. Listen to the text “Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages” and match the names of some of these wonders (1-4) with the statements about them (a-d).

Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages

Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages are lists of wonders which were created after the Middle Ages. Some items on these lists are not technically from the Middle Ages. Some representatives are:

First. Stonehenge

It is a huge prehistoric temple on Salisbury Plain in southern England. The main part is a great circle of standing stones. Each is more than twice as tall as a man and weighs nearly 30 tons. Flat stones were laid across the tops of the standing stones to form a ring. Inside a ring stood smaller stones, and a great block that may have been an altar.

Second. The Colosseum

The Colosseum of Rome was a giant sports stadium built by the ancient Romans. It could hold more than 50,000 people and was the largest building of its kind in the Roman Empire. Although the Colosseum has suffered several earthquakes, much of it still stands. The floor, or arena, was used for gladiator combats, battles between men and animals or between different kinds of animals. It was also used for showing rare wild creatures. The floor could also be flooded so that sea battles could be fought on it.

Third. The Great Wall of China

More than 2,000 years ago the first emperor of China built this wall to keep out China’s enemies from the north. The Great Wall is the longest wall in the world. It stretches for 2,400 kilometres from Western China to the Yellow Sea. The wall is made from earth and stone. Watch- towers were built every 200 metres along it. Chinese sentries sent warning signals from the towers if anyone attacked the wall. The signal was smoke by day and a fire at night.

Fourth. The Leaning Tower of Piza

This is a round bell tower in the city of Piza in Italy, which leans to one side. The citizens of Piza like to believe that the architect of the Leaning Tower deliberately planned it that way because he was a hunchback. Actually the soft soil beneath the foundation gives way. This causes the unsafe angle. On its completion in 1372, the tower leaned 14 feet off and it has been moving further ever since at the rate of a few inches a year. Nowadays the tower is in danger of falling down completely.

No. 14. Exercise 7. Listen to two small texts under the title “Two Natural Wonders” and complete the statements in the Student’s book.

Two Natural Wonders

A. Victoria Falls

There are many natural wonders in this beautiful world. Some of them have become quite famous and people are prepared to travel long distances to look at them.

One such place is Victoria Falls which is one of the most impressive of Africa’s natural wonders. Victoria Falls lie on the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe in central Africa on the Zambezi River, where it is more than 1,676 metres wide. The Falls’ African name can be translated into English like “the smoke that thunders”. Islands divide the Falls into several streams. The highest of the Falls is nearly 110 metres. Great clouds of water vapour from the Falls and keep the plants growing around green and fresh. Victoria Falls National Park surrounds the area. David Livingstone, the famous English traveller, saw the Falls on November 17, 1855, and named them for Queen Victoria.

B. Lake Baikal

On the great territory of Russia there are thousands of natural wonders but Lake Baikal is rightfully considered to be the gem of Russia. It is located in southeastern Siberia. The Baikal is the largest freshwater lake in Eurasia. It covers an area of 31,722 square kilometres and measures about 636 kilometres long up to 82 kilometres wide. With a maximum depth of 1,620 metres it is the deepest freshwater lake in the world. The lake is a popular summer resort. Baikal’s water is exceptionally pure. Many species of animals living here can be found nowhere else.

The water in the lake remains cold year-round; it is frozen from December to May. The Baikal is fed by numerous rivers but has only one outlet, the Angara River, at Irkutsk.

Exercise 64. Listen to the poems and say what their messages are.

No. 15.

Upon Westminster Bridge

by William Wordsworth

Earth has not anything to show more fair:

Dull would he be of soul who could pass by

A sight so touching in its majesty:

This city now doth like a garment wear

The beauty of the morning; silent, bare,

Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie

Open unto the fields, and to the sky;

All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.

Never did sun more beautifully steep

In his first splendour valley, rock, or hill;

Ne’er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!

The river glideth at his own sweet will:

Dear God! the very houses seem asleep;

And all that mighty heart is lying still!

No. 16.

Venice

by Samuel Rogers

There is a glorious City in the Sea,

The Sea is the broad, the narrow streets,

Ebbing and flowing; and the salt sea-weed

Clings to the marble of her palaces.

No track of men, no footsteps to and fro,

Lead to her gates. The path lies o’er the

Sea, Invisible; and from the land we went,

As to a floating City - steering in,

And gliding up her streets as in a dream,

So smoothly, silently - by many a dome

Mosque-like, and many a stately portico,

The statues ranged along an azure sky;

By many a pile in more than eastern splendour,

Of old the residence of merchant-kings;

The fronts of some, though time had shattered them,

Still glowing with the richest hues of art,

As though the wealth within them had run o’er.

Unit Four

No. 17. Exercise 3. Listen to the text and say which of the statements in the Student’s book are true, false or not mentioned in the text.

Stone Age Man in Britain

The British Isles were not always the green and pleasant land in which people live today. Many thousands of years ago they were not even islands, and England was joined to France by dry land.

In those far-off times no one lived there because the land was covered with ice hundreds of feet thick. Then slowly the climate became warmer and the ice melted, leaving the bare rock underneath. Many hundreds of years passed before the land was fit for men to live. The earliest man ever to live there came across the dry land from France. Those men and women were very different from the men and women today. Those people were able to talk and think though only in a very simple way. They knew how to make some sort of clothes for themselves out of the skins of animals. But they had not yet learned how to build even the simplest houses. They lived in caves and knew how to make fire, probably by rubbing dry sticks together. They had no iron or steel knives. Nor had they any pottery.

About six or seven thousand years ago, some new people came across the dry land into England. We call them Neolithic people and we know that they were much more intelligent than the men who lived in caves. The cave man’s brain was undeveloped. The Neolithic men were more clever. When they saw things happening they wanted to know why they happened. This desire to find out why things happened was the beginning of all civilization. Those people built huts, used bows and arrows to hunt; they began to use canoes to travel and simple tools. Those people were farmers, too, and they began to grow some sort of corn out of which they made bread and they discovered how to make pottery. They were not savages. They were the dim beginnings of the modern civilization in which all of us live. We call them Stone Age men! We give them this name because they made their tools and weapons of flint.

No. 18. Exercise 5. Listen to the descriptions of people’s behaviour which are taken from popular legends and say in which of them Man

a) becomes an outsider in his community;

b) demonstrates kindness;

c) gets punishment for his disobedience;

d) doesn’t know what sympathy is;

e) can’t resist his desire.

1. Many people know the story of Daedalus and his son Icarus. Before the story begins, the wife of King Minos has been made by the gods to fall in love with a bull and has given birth to a monster, half bull, and half human, called the Minotaur. King Minos employs Daedalus to build a maze, or a labyrinth, to imprison the dangerous creature. Daedalus does as he is asked but later he angers the king and finds himself locked with his son Icarus in his own labyrinth. But the man is incredibly skilful and soon the wings that can carry him and his son in the sky are ready. But Icarus doesn’t follow his father’s warning never to fly too close to the sun. Thinking he is invulnerable he approaches the sun and dies.

2. One day a skilled blacksmith made a beautiful silver box. It was a divine piece of art and the gods filled it with something and forbade the man to open it. The blacksmith’s bosom friend saw the box and was amazed by its beauty. It was a real masterpiece. The friend wanted to have the box in his possession and the blacksmith couldn’t help giving it to the person he loved so much. But he instructed his friend never to open the box. The latter agreed. Admiring the box every evening before going to bed its new owner grew more and more restless as he wanted to know what was hidden inside. So, one night the blacksmith’s friend understood he could no longer bear the torture. His whole body trembling, he knelt down beside the box and opened it and at once all the problems of the world that had been long kept locked up, exploded into the world.

3. There was once a large Indian village situated on the border of a lake. And in it there dwelt an old man, a widower with two sons. The youngest was very small, weak and often ill, which didn’t prevent his brother from treating him with great cruelty. He would burn the other’s hands and face with hot coals. When their father, coming home, asked why the child was so disfigured, his brother would promptly say that it was the fault of the boy himself. He had been forbidden to go near the fire but he had disobeyed and fallen in.

4. Once there was a young man who was very poor. His parents had died when he was only a boy and he was brought up by his grandparents. But now they were dead, too, and he was lonely and unhappy. He had no cattle, no fine clothes, no valuable belongings, and because of this the people of his village ignored him. One day, the poor man decided he had had enough of his unfriendly village. He would set off - it didn’t matter where - to see if he would have better luck in another part of the country.

5. Once a man set off towards a faraway village. He walked for miles across the dusty plain and by midday he was hot and tired. Luckily, there was a tree nearby. So he sat under it and rested in the shade. Feeling hungry he opened his bag and took out a hunk of meat he had. Just as he was pulling it out he heard something scratching the ground behind him. He looked around and there was a scrawny-looking hyena eyeing the meat. “Excuse me,” it said, “but do you think you could spare the bones when you have finished the meat? You see, I haven’t eaten for two days.” The man decided to share his meat with the animal.

No. 19. Exercise 7. Listen to the text about Mother Teresa and choose the right items in the statements in the Student’s book.

Mother Teresa

She arrived in Calcutta on December 1, 1948. She had five rupees - worth less than a dollar - in her pocket. The terrible smell of poverty hit her in the face. She made her way around huge piles of waste. She watched the children playing among them, the rats running back and forth, the beggars looking for food.

Faced with the filth, the sickness, the hunger, the numbers of people lying in the streets, where would she begin?

She began with the children. She found an open spot between the huts, took a stick and began to trace the Bengali letters on a patch of earth. One by one, the slum children came to see what she was doing. At first there were only a few, but in no time there were about thirty children. She began to teach them about cleanliness. Before she began the alphabet lesson each day, she washed them with soap and water. What a strange experience it was for them! They had hardly ever washed. Most of them had never even seen a piece of soap.

Some of Sister Teresa’s old friends heard about what she was doing and came to see her. They brought things for the school with them - paper, chairs and bars of soap, which Sister Teresa gave to the children as prizes. She managed to get some milk, too. It was just enough to give the children at lunchtime.

After school was over for the day, she went around the place to help the sick and the poor. Someone gave her some medical supplies so she could open a dispensary - a place to work with the sick, to give out medicine. She cleaned the sick and cared for them using the knowledge she had got at St. Mary’s and pure common sense as well. Sometimes she begged for scraps of food at the door of the church so she could feed one or two starving people.

But for every beggar who drank the water she brought there were thousands more who were thirsty. For every starving man who received food from her, there were dozens more at her feet who held their hands up for something. For every child she taught, there were untold numbers who would never learn to read and write. Sister Teresa was determined and didn’t want to stop. If she couldn’t help the thousands, she would help at least one person.

Help came from friends and former pupils. She was joined by Sister Agnes, Sister Gertrude, Sister Bernard, and Sister Frederick...

They lived like the poor and worked from morning to night. They called themselves the Missionaries of Charity, and from that time on Sister Teresa began to be called Mother.

Exercise 69. Listen to the poems and say what their messages are.

No. 20.

Do Not Stand at My Grave and Weep

(by an anonymous author)

Do not stand at my grave and weep,

I am not there; I do not sleep.

I am a thousand winds that blow,

I am the diamond glints on snow,

I am the sun on ripened grain,

I am the gentle autumn rain.

When you awaken in the morning’s hush

I am the swift uplifting rush

Of quiet birds in circled flight.

I am the soft stars that shine at night.

Do not stand at my grave and cry,

I am not there; I did not die.

No. 21.

Extract from Romeo and Juliet

by William Shakespeare

O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?

Deny thy father and refuse thy name;

Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,

And I’ll no longer be a Capulet.

’Tis but thy name that is my enemy;

Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.

What’s Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot,

Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part

Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!

What’s in a name? that which we call a rose

By any other name would smell as sweet;

So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call’d,

Retain that dear perfection which he owes

Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name,

And for that name which is no part of thee

Take all myself.